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Static Testing

Software testing is done throughout the software development lifecycle which can reduce the future defects, hence reduce time and cost of the project. Static testing is one such effective way, wherein, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors. The software testers can perform a static testing at various different levels of software development, however, developers can review the programs without execution. The other members of the IT project team can also review the project documents based on relevance. In this article, static testing by software testers is considered in scope.

Static testing can be a manual review of documents – a dry run or can be done with a tool support. Peer review is wherein the software testers review each other’s documents. A tool support can be taken especially if it is a program. The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.

Informal review: It is an inexpensive way to get some benefit from reviewing the documents. The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project. The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers. The result may not be documented. The test lead is not monitoring the effort.

Formal review or Inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. The reviewers review the documents accordingly and prepare for review meeting. During review meetings, errors are discussed. One of the QA in the team is assigned with a role of Scribe to record the discussion and decisions during the review meeting. There can be an author to read the documents. After the review meeting, review reports with review metrics are submitted by the reviewer to the moderator. Inspection can be useful for technical reviews, identifying errors in specifications etc.

Walkthrough: The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning. Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.

Static testing identifies the errors or mistakes done by the author of project documents. Software testers can identify the missing information easily, like the specifications of input fields, erroneous logic in the process, incomplete diagrams, or content and so on from the project documents. The project documents like requirements, design, test documents, or any other project specific documents can be reviewed by software testers. 

Check your understanding:

  1. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.
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80 thoughts on “Static Testing”

  1. Thank you for such an interesting, well defined, detailed blog. I was able to understand and learn Static Testing in depth.

  2. Interesting read on Static Testing, thank you! Could not identify any errors in your blog on Static Testing 🙂 Just wondering when you check the font, the size, the colour, the location of a tab on the page of a document, etc, do you consider this kind of testing under the ambit of Static Testing?

    1. In static testing, we do not check the font, the size, the colour, the location of a tab on the page of a document.
      The test lead specifies the checklist of what is to be checked in the document.

  3. This article nicely describes the various ways to perform Static Testing by QA on a project document, and how any errors, flaws or defects can be detected from document reviews early before the document being sent to next level to the project development team. The early identification of bugs from a document can definitely improve the quality and duration of a software being developed for the end users.

  4. software testing is done throughout SDLC which can reduce the defects. Static Testing is a software testing technique in which the software is tested without executing the code, where u can review project documents manually or can be done with a tool support. A tool support can be taken especially if it is a program. The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.
    Informal review: informal review is done by software testers, they can review any project document anytime during the project. The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers. The result may not be documented. The test lead is not monitoring the effort.
    formal review:
    inspection: Inspection or formal review is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns different roles to software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed.
    walkthrough: the main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning. Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.One of the QA team memeber is assigned with a role of scribe., the role of the scribe is to record the discussion and decisions during the review meeting. After the review meeting, review reports with review metrics are submitted by the reviewer to the moderator. Inspection can be useful for technical reviews, identifying errors in specifications etc.

  5. Static testing is one effective way, where, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors ,
    The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.

  6. When working on a teaching team, the state wanted to switch the assessment tools they were using for students with disabilities. My teaching cooperative was chosen to be one of the client focus groups to try the new assessment tool before it was launched and implemented in all school districts. We had walk-through meetings with those that developed the testing portal to which they told us what the expected outcome of the test would be. Then we were to report any areas that we thought were confusing or would not be as student friendly as they would like it to be.

  7. The above article Static Testing clearly defined that the static testing is effective way to review project document to identify the errors.

  8. Thanks for this article. It clearly describes the process/steps that are involved with static testing. It is very important to identify defects at an early stage as it ultimately leads to finishing the project on time and in budget.

  9. As a Starbucks shift supervisor, we usually have a pre-shift meeting every morning, where the supervisor layout the duties and positions of every barista working on that shift. The pre-shift meeting starts with acknowledging every barista present and then stating out how the anticipate the shift should go, which is then followed by the sales goal for the day. Then finally the shift supervisor wants to know if any barista has any concerns or anything reason why the think the shift wont run as smoothly as anticipated.

  10. I was not familiar with this topic at all but now I am. Static testing is an cost effective way to identify errors in early phases of SDLC, which in turn reduces the cost of the project by identifying errors early and fixing them early in the SDLC.
    Thank you Priya
    Vandana

  11. Its a maual review of the software documents without executing the software.
    This can be done in various ways -informal or formal , inspection and walkthrough meetings.

    Informal review is an expensive way and can be done by QA at any time during the project, inding errors depends on the tester performace . No monitoring here by Test lead or anyone.

    Formal review is a Planned and monitored by Moderator (Test lead ) will guide what type of topics to be reviewed in the documne and explains about project documents(procedure,rules,checklist). During review meetings ,error are discussed.
    These errors are recorded by a Scribe and at the end of meeting the reports will be given to the Test Lead.

    Walkthrough’s are done to provide project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain a better understanding of project , enable learning and Identifying errors.

  12. While working at Sun Pharmaceuticals, my role was to validate their ERP system. Before the validation activities began, there was a meeting conducted to discuss the objective and focus of the validation activities. Also, validation protocols pertaining to a specific module were assigned to each member in the team. We were also provided with clear guidelines and checklists on how to proceed with validation as well as how we would be reviewing each others documents. After all the modules of the system were validated, there was a formal review of the validated protocols by the QA team to check if the validation was performed as per industry and company standards as well as for any missing steps or pages in the documents.
    So, I strongly feel conducting organised meetings provides a clear and systematic approach, especially when working as a team.

  13. Software testing done throughout development life cycle reduce the future defect ,time and cost.
    It project team review the project documents.
    Static testing can be done with a tool support. the review process can be conducted informal review, formal review or inspection.
    during review meeting errors are discussed. Author to read the documents later matrics are submitted the moderator,Inspection can be useful for technical reviews identifying errors in specification etc.
    In static testing the main purpose of walk through project information the new tester or interduces the new content to the team or identifying errors ,or also identify the missing infomation easily.

  14. When I was working as production Support in AT&T. We used to have daily meetings with developer, interface team and upper level manager for engagement tickets status and my own tickets status. It was difficult when I don’t get the update from developer and interface team. Also when severity 1 issues arise. it was difficult but managed to attend meeting with upper level manager.

  15. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents
    Job gathering Documents – eg- when ever we go for an interview the Curriculam Vitae is the document through which an panel gets an idea and act as an document for the selection process followed by the academic ratings (GPA) and verification documents and back groundcheck through which an HR proceeds with the further steps. This type can be type of static testing.

    Job – When i was working in WAP team as Test Engineer we used to have an data called as metadata (source content) which needs to be published to end users with various testings but this was not possible without the content review from the content team to check the file type, format, other factors so we had to discuss with them on daily basis to test the format and other requirement, only then the contents where created using XML carried by testing on jira tool to test the format and release it on the web portals by creating packs. so in this way the static testing was performed.

  16. Static testing is one effective way wherein the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors. Software testers can perform the static testing at various levels of software development. Developers can review without execution. Static testing can be manual review of documents. Peer review is wherein the software testers review each others documents. Informal review is an inexpensive way to get benefits by reviewing the documents . Formal review is by test lead and provides rules and checklist of what to be reviewed to the testing team.
    Walk through is to provide the project information to new testers or introduce new content to the team. Static testing identifies errors done by authors of project documents

  17. The article Static Testing clearly defined that it is is effective way to review project document to identify the errors.
    i dont have working experience

  18. Software testing is done through the software development life cycle which can reduce future defects .
    static testing can be a manual review of documents , the reviews process can be conducted in the project in different ways
    informal review , formal review or inception , walk through.
    very well explained.

  19. I am working in Department of Driver services. We have to attend bi weekly meeting .where we discuss lot of new federal laws. Managers assign new law documents to everybody and also reviews licenses that has been issued on everyday basis .Managers also identify the errors in issuance and tell us to verify. Also a report has been printed every month to identify the errors by each examiner and is also discuss in meeting.

  20. As an electrical test engineer for manufacturing company, documenting test plan and integrating NPI(new product introduction) to functional test system for contract based customers is very important to go through documents and to make sure the quality of the production is met as it is required by clients. There are several weekly and monthly meetings held during new product manufacturing period where stakeholders sit together to discuss composite target yield , defects during manufacturing, correction and root cause analysis. We constantly review MPI(manufacturing Process Instruction) and TPI(Test Process Instruction) documents to make sure all the team members have followed the instruction. As a stakeholder from product manufacturing team, we gather input from process engineers and test engineers to prepare quarterly business report and it’s immensely important to review documents before we finalize the report.

  21. There is nothing to much to share , but I can summarize the static testing. Mainly it is a run through and it includes formal review, informalreview and walkthrough.

  22. I worked with an IT firm in testing the software functionality of an App that is being developed for drivers. With this App drivers can receive jobs, know the hot spots where passengers are needed and concentrated. It also contain information about time of pickups, charges etc. We had regular meetings to test the App manually, check if each functions are working correctly. Corrections and suggestions are made until the App is released to the end users in this case the drivers.

  23. Thanks for this article. It clearly describes the process/steps that are involved with static testing. It is very important to identify defects at an early stage as it ultimately leads to timely completion of the project and with the specified budget.
    Do not have any personal experience yet.

  24. Static testing is one effective way, where, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors ,
    The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walk through.

  25. Technical documentation in software engineering is the umbrella term that encompasses all written documents and materials dealing with a software product’s development and use. All software development products, whether created by a small team or a large corporation, require some related documentation. And different types of documents are created through the whole software development lifecycle (SDLC). Documentation exists to explain product functionality, unify project-related information, and allow for discussing all significant questions arising between stakeholders and developers.
    On top of that, documentation errors can set gaps between the visions of stakeholders and engineers and, as a result, a proposed solution won’t meet stakeholders’ expectations. Consequently, managers should pay a lot of attention to documentation quality.
    The main goal of effective documentation is to ensure that developers and stakeholders are headed in the same direction to accomplish the objectives of the project.

  26. Ans.: Discussion on document during job:
    o Informal review: It is an inexpensive way to get some benefit from reviewing the documents. The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project.
    o Formal review or inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed.
    o Walkthrough: The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning. Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.

  27. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.
    Ans. Static testing is a review of the project document by the QA to identify the errors in the document.
    there are three techniques which are used in static testing,
    Informal Review; its a review of the project document where one or two testers can review the document anytime or anywhere and no updates, monitoring or documentation is required, its inexpensive.
    Formal review or inspection: Its done in a formal manner where test lead acts as a moderator and assigns roles and responsibilities to the different testers in the team. Test team conduct review meeting where they review the documents. One of the QA in the team is assigned with a role of Scribe to record the discussion during the review meeting. A review report is created and submitted to the test lead by the viewers for technical reviews and identifying errors.
    Walkthrough: In walkthrough the new testers are given the project information by the BA, Senior QA, test lead or the author of the document. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning.

  28. I was program manger, and worked with developer team. Developer team planned to update the Specification document, so every Wednesday for 2 months, there was a meeting and PM and Dev team had to be attended. We discussed about which feature should be updated, how the spec should be changed, who will be in charge of writing document, so on.

  29. Based on my previous experience as a software developer, we would have weekly progress meetings to check on the status of the developer’s progress based on the project requirement documents, design documents and the testing documents.

  30. Static testing is one such effective way, wherein, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors.
    Static testing can be a manual review of documents .The software testers review each other’s documents. A tool support can be taken especially if it is a program. The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.
    Informal review: Software tester can review any project document anytime during the project. The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers. The result may not be documented. The test lead is not monitoring the tester.
    Formal review: Inspection or formal review is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns different roles to software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. One of the QA team member is assigned as scribe. The role of the scribe is to record the discussion and decisions during the review meeting. After the review meeting, review reports with review metrics are submitted by the reviewer to the moderator.
    Walkthrough: The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning.

  31. static Testing is one such effective way where in the project documents are reviewers to identify the errors. it can be a manual review documents or a dry run or can be a tool support.
    Informal review: It is an inexpensive way to get some benefits from the reviewing the documents. the software testers can be review any project document anytime the project.
    formal review or inspection: Inspection is planned and monitoring by the test lead who play the role of the moderator.
    walk through :the main purpose of the walk through is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team.

  32. This article provides an overview of static testing, which is mainly done by review of documents and identifying errors. The three types of static testing are discussed in detail – formal review, informal review and walkthrough.

  33. Static testing main purpose is to review the project documents and identify the errors. it can be reviewed by testers , developers
    or any other project team members . The review process can be conducted in different ways like the informal review, formal review and walk through .

  34. Static Testing is the review of the project documents to identify errors for example incomplete information or missing diagrams and so on… There are various techniques for conducting this Static Testing :
    1. Informal Inspection- where any QA can review any document at any time during the project . No documentation or reporting is required and it is an inexpensive way to review the documents may it be FSD or test docs etc.
    2. Formal Inspection- is the method where the test lead acts as Moderator and plans and controls the test docs, also assigns roles to QA’s to follow checklist, in review meetings discuss the errors documented by QA sometimes also know as Scribe , follow up of errors, and review the error report prepared by QA
    3. Walk through- is the process where new testers on the team are provided with project information either by Sr. QA, test lead or the author of the document.

  35. As per my understanding from above document is Static testing is review of project documents . It can be manual review or tools can be used to review docs. Static testing can be done at various levels throughout the development of project. It is performed to identify the defects or errors in documents(Diagrams, requirement specification, input fields specification) which can be useful to reduce the risk , cost and time of the project development.
    Static testing is conducted by different ways like Informal review, Formal review or Inspection, Walkthrough.
    1. Informal review- It is an inexpensive process can be done by anyone in project at any time. Results are not documented necessarily.
    2. Formal review or Inspection- Test lead plans and monitors the review process as moderator. Test lead set up rules and checklists and assigns role to different testers to review docs. Meeting is conducted to discuss the review of docs. i.e. errors and defects and review is it is reported by reviewver to the moderator. It is useful for technical review and identifying errors in specification.
    3. Walkthrough – Walkthrough is process to review any new documents in the project or to introducing project docs. to the new tester. It is performed for the purpose of understanding the project.

  36. 1. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.

    I had an opportunity to attend a meeting for a Vacation Bible School in my community parish as a volunteer responsible for planning, developing and executing the children’s meal project. I brought with me the requirements documents that I have previously received from the Parish Manager. I also prepared the planning document that included schedules, budget, and resources) needed for successful execution. This document I have developed was first reviewed by another volunteer member friend (Informal review). During the meeting, I was asked by the management team to hand over my documents to compare and create a checklist, and this to confirm if all Requirements given were taken in consideration before approval (Formal Review). So, I took note and update my documents after review.

  37. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.

    * Usually Requirement Documents will be prepared by Business Analyst. Static Testing is way of testing done by reviewing these documents at different levels by the testers. It can be simply dry run or using a tool ( mostly by developers). This Static testing is can be of e types..Informal, formal or inspection and Walkthrough.
    – Informal way is mostly free of cost, no inspection by Test lead, no errors will be recorded and the tester will review the documents in his own way and whenever he wants.
    – Formal or Inspection way…the name itself implies that it will be under the supervision of Test lead who takes the role of a Moderator and gives the roles and responsibilities to the testers to review the documents. After reviewing the documents there will be review meeting conducted to discuss the errors and there will be tester who was assigned with the role called Scribe to record the discussions at review meeting and should be submitted to the Moderator.
    – Walkthrough is the process basically for the newly joined testers to understand the project details or it will be to discuss any changes or modifications in the documents.
    This Static testing will be done at different levels in SDLC which is an effective way to avoid the errors or defects, but it totally depends on the testers efficiency.

  38. STATIC TESTING– # A.K.a non-execution technique or verification testing
    # In static testing code is not executed
    # Manually checks the code, requirement documents and design documents to find errors.
    #Used in the early stages of the life cycle to find the defect early.
    #Involves manual and Automation reviews
    TESTING TECHNIQUE–
    #Informal reviews
    # Technical reviews
    #Walkthrough
    #Inspection
    #Static code review

  39. Static testing is a process to identify the errors by reviewing project documents.
    The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the
    Informal review: The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project.
    Formal review or inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. The reviewers review the documents accordingly and prepare for review meeting. During review meetings, errors are discussed. One of the QA in the team is assigned with a role of Scribe to record the discussion and decisions during the review meeting.
    Walkthrough: The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team.

  40. Static Testing

    The software tester can perform a static testing at different levels of software development, It can be a manual review of documents or testing the application with the support of tools or a dry run. The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.
    Informal review :
    The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project. The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers. The result may not be documented. The test lead is not monitoring the effort.
    Formal review or Inspection:
    Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who assigns different roles to each software testers in the team. The discussion and decisions during the meeting will be recorded.
    Walkthrough:
    The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning. Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.

  41. Static testing is an effective way, wherein, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors. The software testers can perform a static testing at various different levels of software development. Static testing can be a manual review of documents – a dry run or can be done with a tool support. Peer review is wherein the software testers review each other’s documents. The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough. In Informal Review the software testers can review any project document anytime during the project. The result may not be documented. Formal review or Inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test leadwho plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. The reviewers review the documents accordingly and prepare for review meeting. Inspection can be useful for technical reviews, identifying errors in specifications etc. Walkthrough: The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team. The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning. Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.

  42. Static tetsing is a manual review of documents which can be perform at various level of software developement.
    The review process in the project conducted in different ways like informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.
    Informal review is an inexpensive way to review the documents anytime during the project.The results are not documented and monitored by the test lead.
    Formal review or Inspection is a planned and monitered way of review. Test lead plays a important role in planning and monitoring the project. test laed acts a moderator
    here.
    Walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce to new content to the team.the main purposeis to understand the project information and enable laerning, identifying errors.

  43. As Configuration Management (CM), I was responsible for conducting CCB (Change Control Board) meetings about defects and the best way to resolve them. Many of those defects required updates to the documentation as well.

  44. The levels of testing is classified into two in which one of them is static testing.it is nothing but review
    of the project documents to identify errors.There are basically three techniques
    of testing.They are as follows
    1. Informal Review: Any QA,software tester can review any documents anytime during the project.No updates or monitoring required and it is an inexpensive way too.
    2. Formal Review/Inspection: It is planned and controlled by test lead, who acts as a moderator.Who also assign roles, documents of different tester to the team.Rules and checklist are reviewed during meeting. It will get documented in project meeting is called ‘Scribe’
    3. Walkthrough: This used to provide project information by senior QA and to identify an errors.

  45. I am currently taking this online course of testing. I do not have any experience of attending any meeting in this IT field. But in general, in every meeting, there should be a notice of meeting with time and venue, need an agenda with purpose, a goal and documentation what was discussed, ruled out or changed in the document during the meeting.

  46. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.
    I used to work as an Assistant Teacher .In every meeting with the Principal about how to implement the New syllabus we used to follow the curriculum and try to make the lesson plan by using the help of various teaching Aids and Techniques we are going to use in the class to make the lesson easier to the class.
    It is all planned and documented and acted on it accordingly which is approved by the Education Board.

  47. Static Testing is the review of the project documents to identify errors for example incomplete information or missing diagrams and so on… There are various techniques for conducting this Static Testing :
    1. Informal Inspection- where any QA can review any document at any time during the project . No documentation or reporting is required and it is an inexpensive way to review the documents may it be FSD or test docs etc.
    2. Formal Inspection- is the method where the test lead acts as Moderator and plans and controls the test docs, also assigns roles to QA’s to follow checklist, in review meetings discuss the errors documented by QA sometimes also know as Scribe , follow up of errors, and review the error report prepared by QA
    3. Walk through- is the process where new testers on the team are provided with project information either by Sr. QA, test lead or the author of the document.

  48. Static Testing is a method of software testing. It is a manual review of documents. Its purpose is to identify defects early. It can be done at any point of the S/W’s development. It is an inexpensive method of testing. It does not require software execution. The different ways that it can be done are: formal, informal and walkthrough.
    Informal testing is an inexpensive testing done by QA testers. Defects are not documented. Relies on the skill of testers. Test Lead does not monitor the effort.
    Formal testing is planned and monitored. Test Lead is the moderator. He assigns the documents, and roles to team members. He explains the review procedure to the team. Someone from team is given the role of ‘scribe’to document the defects and discussions Another may be designated author to read the documents.
    Walkthrough’s purpose is to introduce new content to team. It educates the members with new information.
    Static Testing finds any errors in project documents. Mainly it identifies missing input fields, errors in logic in the process, incomplete diagrams, or content and so on from the project documents.

  49. Q. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.

    Static Testing:
    Project documents are reviewed to identify the errors, reduce defects, reduce time and cost of the project in static testing.
    There are three different techniques of static testing as QA will encounter:
    1. Informal Review:
    – It is an inexpensive way of testing.
    – The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project.
    – The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers.
    – The result may not be documented.
    – The test lead is not monitoring the effort.

    2. Formal Review/Inspection:
    – Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator.
    – Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team,
    – Moderator explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed.
    – Reviewers meet up in meeting for review discussion.
    – One of the QA is assigned to record and document the meeting discussion and is known as a scribe.
    – Review reports are submitted to the moderator/Test lead.
    – Inspections can be useful for technical reviews, identifying errors in specifications etc.

    3. Walkthrough:
    – New testers are introduced with the project information and documents in walkthrough.
    – The main purpose is to gain an understanding of project information and enable learning.
    – Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.

  50. This article walks us through the process of Static Testing during the projct testing phase.
    Static testing can be done at early stages in the life cycle so early feedback on quality issue can be established. As the defects are getting detected at an early stage, it reduces the time and cost of the project.
    Documents can be examined manually in various stages.
    Informal review- The testers can review the project documents anytime and results are not documented.
    Formal Review – Moderator assigns the documents/roles to different software testers.Documents are reviewed, errors are discussed
    dicussion is recorded and reports are submitted.
    Walk Through – The main purpose is to provide the project details to testing team by the testing lead to carry out the project.

  51. Static Testing is performed at the earlier stages of the project to identify defects and ensure coding standards. It also helps to review documents, and perform code walkthrough without actually executing the code.

  52. Static testing: Project documents are reviewed by QA to identify the errors. Ex: missing information like the specifications of input fields, erroneous logic in the process, incomplete diagrams, or content and so on from the project documents.
    Benefits of reviewing:
    For example, if errors are not identified during BRD documentation, this might lead to more errors during the next phase of the software development which might cost more time and investment into the project and also end up with poor quality of software.
    The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walk through.

  53. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.

    As of now I don’t have any QA experience. But what I understood from the above topic is that Static testing is review of the documents manually without executing the code or touching the application. Here, we try to find the causes for failures(defects). Types of Static testing-
    Informal Review – The tester reviews the documents like BRD, FSD etc before preparing the test documents. Any error the tester will report it to the author of the document. It’s less expensive way of testing.
    Formal Review- It is also called as Inspection. Here the test lead acts as a moderator. He plans and controls the activities, prepares checklists and rules, assigns tasks to the testers, conducts the review meeting where The reviewers have to come prepared for the review meeting. Whatever are the happenings in the review meeting is documented by the Scribe. In the review meeting errors are discussed, try to find solutions for these, if not found then follow up are done with the client, developers etc. The reviewers have to create and submit the review report to the test lead. The review report contains the review metrics. Inspection is useful for technical reviews.
    Walkthrough- Whenever a new Testing team forms or a new tester becomes part of the QA team. The author of the document or the Sr. QA or the test lead give introduction about the project and make them understand what the project is about. This helps in identifying the defects.

  54. Software testing is done throughout the software development life cycle which can reduce the future defects, hence reduce time and cost of the project. Static testing is one such effective way, wherein, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors.
    The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walk through.
    informal review:The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project.
    formal review or inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. The reviewers review the documents accordingly and prepare for review meeting. During review meetings, errors are discussed.
    walkthroughs:The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team

  55. Static testing is where the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors.It is an inexpensive way to get some benefit from reviewing the documents. The software testers can test the doccument and the developers/peers can review it.Static testing can me done in three ways.
    Informal: There is no formal lead
    Formal: There is a designated lead and scribe.
    Walkthrough: Usually done to introduce new members to the project.

  56. I was wondering if the below example can be a analogy for Static testing:
    Your starting a preschool, one of your requirements is filing cabinet with specifications of number of drawers, height and type of files.
    Static testing would be:
    The person who is in-charge of placing the order is making sure the file he is ordering is as per the requirements document he was given and then passes on to the department who is in-charge of ordering.
    Dynamic Testing would be:
    after the order has arrived. The team physically check to make sure everything is as per the specifications.

    Static testing: Project documents are reviewed by QA to identify the errors. Ex: missing information like the specifications of input fields, erroneous logic in the process, incomplete diagrams, or content and so on from the project documents.
    Benefits of reviewing: For example if errors are not identified during BRD documentation, this might lead to more errors during the next phase of the software development which might cost more time and investment into the project and also end up with poor quality of software.
    The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.

  57. Exploratory testing: It is informal way of testing, that depends on the software tester’s experience. It is a hand-on approach for tester to plan the testing activities. The test design and test cases are performed simultaneously without documenting the test conditions, test cases and test scripts. For example the tester will decide the boundary values and will think through and perform testing on the important test boundary values without writing them. The testing can be beneficiary when the specifications are inadequate and there is time pressure.
    Initial level testing: Smoke testing, Sanity Testing
    Smoke testing: test the basic functionality which is built. For example if a software has a module with the login page, main page and gallery. This testing deals whether the user is able to login properly with the valid credentials or is there a facility to create new user whether he can open the main page or gallery by logging in etc.
    Sanity Testing: It is a quick test done to the software when you don’t have enough time to do the other types of testing. It is a part of regression testing or performed before retesting.

  58. static testing comes under verification.In the static testing ,testers will review the project documents without executing programs to identify the defects.The main advantage of static testing is finding the defects in the early stages itself.
    Static testing can be done in three ways
    1.Informal review
    —–Here testers will review the project documents any time during the project.Testers will not send any reports to the senior QA’s.This is inexpensive way of doing static testing
    2.formal review or inspection
    —–Test leader act as a moderator.He will control all the activities and assigns the documents to the testers in a team.Testers will review the documents If they find any defects they will report to moderator in review meeting.Test leader will assign a scribe role to one of the testers in a team .Scribe will make document regarding review meeting (what is disscussed in the meeting,what is duration of meeting ..etc).After the review meeting scribe report the reviews to the moderator
    3.walk through
    ——The main purpose of walk through is to share the project information to the new testers in the team or If u want to share a new project content with the team

  59. Static testing is a manual review of documents that can run with a tool support . The review process can be conducted in different ways as follows:
    Informal review : The tester can review the project document any time during the project and the results may not be documented by the test lead.
    Formal review: The formal review is monitored by the test lead.The QA team reviews the documents according to a procedure. After the review meeting the review reports are submitted. Its useful to indentify error in the early stage.
    Walkthrough:The main purpose of walkthrough is to provide the project information to the tester and the new contents to the team .

  60. Static testing is one of the levels of Software testing. It refers to the review of project documents et every stage of SDLC – Software Development Life Cycle to eliminate any errors.
    The review process can be conducted in the following ways:
    Informal
     Any QA can review docs anytime during the project
     No updates to send to test lead
     Inexpensive.
    Formal / Inspection
     Test lead acts as moderator to formally inspect
     He plans and controls the process
     He assigns roles / docs to testers
     There are rules and checklists to follow
     Then a review meeting to discuss errors
     These errors are documented by a Scribe (one of the QA team members)
     Review report is checked by moderators
     There is a follow up on the errors.
    Walkthrough
     New testers are provided project info by Sr. QA or test lead or moderator.
    Coming from a travel background, I have prepared several travel and reference documents for travel and tour managers, clients and company records. We maintained lists of client requirements, bookings and travel schedules. We had a core team of 6-8 people and we would have meetings and review documents prepared by each other and our team leader would also monitor our work.

  61. Static testing is one such effective way, wherein, the project documents are reviewed to identify the errors. The software testers can perform a static testing at various different levels of software development, however, developers can review the programs without execution.
    Informal review: It is an inexpensive way to get some benefit from reviewing the documents. The software testers can review any project document anytime during the project. The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers. The result may not be documented.
    Formal review or Inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator. Moderator assigns the documents or roles to the different software testers in a team, explains the review procedure, provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. The reviewers review the documents accordingly and prepare for review meeting. During review meetings, errors are discussed.

  62. Static testing is effective way to identify the errors in project documents. Reviewing project documents can be done in three different ways,informal review, formal review, walkthrough.
    Informal review:
    ->Software testers can review project documents any time.
    ->Results are not documented.
    ->It is an inexpensive way.
    Formal review:
    This review is planned and results are monitored by test lead(moderator)
    ->Test lead provides review procedure, checklist and rules.
    ->Results are reviewed and discussed in the meetings
    ->Meetings are recorded by one of the QA team(called scribe)
    ->this is very useful during technical reviews which helps to identify errors
    Walkthrough:
    Walk-through review is to give information about project to new testers.
    ->Walkthrough purpose is for learning and understanding.

  63. With my experience in the clinical research environment, we were assigned to capture the adverse events of the clinical trial patients and which was moderated by the PI to assign the attributions to the symptoms and was signed off if we thinks it was captured well and good. Else, we have to redo the log to have him reviewed again. This is similar to the formal review, which helped in identifying the errors and reviewing with the moderator and helped in making a clean AE log practicing the GCP.

  64. Static testing is a type of testing in which the code is not executed. It can be done manually or by a set of tools in this testing, the documents or reviewed to identify the errors. The software testers can perform static testing at different levels of software development. With this static testing, we try to find out the errors, code flaws and malicious code in the software applications. It can be done on work documents like required specification, design and test documents or any other project-specific documents.

    Static test techniques
    1. Informal Review – The software tester can review any projects, any documents, any time during the project. The result may not be documented.
    2. Formal Review or Inspection – Checklist is prepared to review the work documents. Inspection can be useful for technical reviews and identifying errors in specifications etc..
    3. Walkthrough – Main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide project information to the testers. ie., to gain and understanding of project information.

  65. As a former supervisor of a Pharmaceutical company, we had daily meetings to ensure the standards we held was met by the QA team. They would let us know if we needed to edit or delete any documents that we had put in place, or to roll out a new set of standards. Each document we filled out would be turned into the QA team, be reviewed, and sent back to us if we needed to make any changes. Through the help of the QA team, we were able to keep a FDA approved center running, and continue with minimal errors.

  66. In my organization a meeting were conducted in 3 month, 6 month, and a year. The 3 month meeting is conducted at a section level. 6 month in the department level and 3rd meeting by all sectors of the organization which is done yearly.
    – Activities done by responsible person is reported and explained at the section level quarterly. The activities/ tasks performed were documented both in hard copy and soft copy. Similarly, Department meeting was hold in 6 months. Each section, under the department, report a 6 months tasks and activities performed. All departments from each sector then report summary of the activities performed in the yearly meeting.
    The aim of the meeting is to evaluate the work performance ( progress, accomplishment, out put) leads to a deep discussions and reviewing. Finally it is concluded with supportive ideas or feed backs.

  67. While new to software industry, I was an insurance underwriter in my previous career. Policy wordings, underwriting guidelines and risk selection criteria were very important documents and basis of business. As part of the team we had various document review meetings, which I now know can be divided in 3 categories:
    1. Informal Review: checking policy issuance procedure to make sure correct documents were being issued.
    2. Formal Review: Formal meeting where the whole team would sit to discuss, review, correct and finalise underwriting guidelines, risk selection criterias, underwriting approval authorities etc. These meeting were always headed and moderated by a senior underwriter, one person was responsible to take notes in the meeting to be documented and shared with everybody concerned.
    3. Walkthrough : meeting to train and update new underwriters joining the team.

    Static Testing is an important method to reduce future defects and hence reduce time and cost of the project.

  68. Software testing is done through the software development life cycle which can reduce future defects .
    static testing can be a manual review of documents , the reviews process can be conducted in the project in different ways
    informal review , formal review or inception , walk through.
    very well explained.

  69. Software testing is done throughout the software development lifecycle which can reduce the future defects, hence reduce time and cost of the project.

    Static testing can be a manual review of documents – a dry run or can be done with a tool support. Peer review is wherein the software testers review each other’s documents. A tool support can be taken especially if it is a program. The review process can be conducted in the project in different ways like the informal review, formal review or inspection and walkthrough.

    Informal review: It is an inexpensive way to get some benefit from reviewing the documents.

    Formal review or Inspection: Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator.

    Walkthrough: The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or introduce new content to the team.

    Static testing identifies the errors or mistakes done by the author of project documents.

  70. 1. Share your experience of attending any meeting during your job for discussion on documents.

    I currently do not have any experience with attending meetings in a QA role. I did, however, understand from the article the significance of static testing, in which project documents are reviewed to identify errors. Programs can be reviewed without execution.

    Manual review of documents can suffice as static testing, which tool support can be implemented in a “dry run.” Peer review can also be initiated, an as such, different software testers can review each other’s documents. There are different ways to conduct the review process: informal review, formal review or inspection, and walkthrough.

    In an informal review, project documents can be reviewed at any time during the project. In a formal review or inspection, the test lead monitors and plans the inspection and assumes the role of Moderator, who assigns documents or roles to different software testers. Reviewers review documents and prepare for review meetings where errors are discussed. In a walkthrough, the primary objective is to introduce project info to new testers and new content to the entire team. The goal is to gain an understanding of project info and facilitate learning and to identify errors.

  71. Static Testing is one of the effective methods of software testing. It is done to identify defects early, hence saving cost and time of the IT project. Static Testing finds any errors in project documents. Mainly it identifies missing input fields, errors in logic in the process, incomplete diagrams, or content and so on from the project documents.
    Static testing can be a manual review of documents- a dry run or can be done with a tool support. The review process can be conducted in the project in following different ways:

    Informal Review – It is an inexpensive way. Here, the software testers can review any project document anytime during the project. The success factor depends on the skills of the reviewers. The result may not be documented. The test lead is not monitoring the effort.

    Formal Review/Inspection – It is done in a formal manner where test lead acts as a moderator and assigns roles and responsibilities to the different testers in the team. The moderator also explains the review procedure and provides rules and checklist of what is to be reviewed. After reviewing the documents, there will be a review meeting. The meeting is conducted to discuss the errors. One of the QA in the team is assigned with a role of Scribe to record the discussions and decisions made during the review meeting. A review report is created and submitted to the test lead by the viewers for technical reviews and identifying errors.

    Walkthrough – The main purpose of the walkthrough is to provide the project information to the new testers or to introduce new content to the team. It is carried out to get an understanding of project information and enable learning. Identifying errors, though is the secondary objective.

  72. I don’t have any real time experience. But if i attend I will carefully read and understand the documents and then i will discuss on it.

  73. Static testing is the process of reviewing the documents manually and it can be done throughout the development lifecycle.software tester can review the documents any time of the testing process.the review of the documents can be done in different ways that is informal review,formal/inspection review and walkthrough review .
    Informal review is the documents can be reviewed by the tester at any time and many times as required.
    Inspection is planned and monitored by the test lead who plays the role of Moderator
    walkthrough is the Main purpose of providing new project information to the testers.

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