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Model Based Testing

Model based Testing is a software testing technique which checks the run time behaviour of the software under test and is checked against predictions made by the model. A Model is known as description of the system’s behavior and behavior can be described in terms of input sequences, actions, conditions, flow of data from input to output. It should be practically understandable and can be reusable, shareable, must have a precise description of the system under test.

There are many models available and also describe different aspects of the system behavior. Examples are:

  1. Data Flow 
  2. Control Flow
  3. Dependency Graph
  4. Decision Tables
  5. State Transition Machines

Model Based testing also explains how the system behaves in response to an action. Supply chain and see if the system responds as per the expectations.

Model Based Testing – Stuff You Must Know!

Consider an example which explains the simplified approach of writing poetry in the notepad and also possible action related to each step. For each and every action, test case which can be generated and also output is verified.

Types of Model based Testing

Basically there are two types:

  1. Offline/a priori: Generation of Test suites before executing it. A test suite is the collection of test cases.
  2. Online/On-the-Fly: Generation of test suites during Test execution.

Different models in Testing:

In order to understand the model based testing it is necessary to understand some of the models.

1. Finite State Machines

This model helps testers to assess the result depending on the input selected. There can be various combinations of the input which results in a corresponding state of the system. This system is governed by a group of inputs given from of testers. For example, system which allows employees to log into the application. In a current state, the employee is “Out” and it becomes “In” once he signs-into the system. Under the “in” state an employee can view, print, scan documents in the system. 

Model Based Testing – Stuff You Must Know!

2. State Charts

It is a continuation of Finite State Machine and can be used for complex and real time systems. State charts are used to explain various behaviours of the system. It is having the definite number of states. The behaviour of the system is analysed and represented in the form of events for each state.

Example: Defects are created in defect management tool with the status as NEW. Once it is fixed by the developers; it has to be changed to status Fixed. If a defect is not fixed, change status to re-open. State Chart should be designed in such a way that it must call for an event for each state.

Model Based Testing – Stuff You Must Know!

3. Unified Modelling Language (UML): 

It is a standardised general-purpose modelling language. UML includes a group of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of that can describe very complicated behaviour of the system.

UML notation:

It has activities like

  • Actors
  • Activities
  • Business Process
  • Components
  • Programming Languages

Challenges faced by the Model based testing:

Movement in Model Based Testing in every organization obviously requires a high amount of investments and effort. The drawbacks of MBT in software engineering are:

  • Required Skills  in testers
  • Learning time will be more
  • It is difficult to understand the model itself.

Advantages:

  • It is easy test case
  • it improves test coverage
  • It can Run different tests on number of machines
  • Early defect detection
  • Increase in defect count
  • Cost is reduced.
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  1. Model based Testing :
    Model based Testing is a software testing technique which checks the run time behaviour of the software under test and is checked against predictions made by the model. A Model is known as description of the system’s behavior and behavior can be described in terms of input sequences, actions, conditions, flow of data from input to output. It should be practically understandable and can be reusable, shareable, must have a precise description of the system under test.
    -Data Flow
    -Control Flow
    -Dependency Graph
    -Decision Tables
    -State Transition Machines.
    Types of Model based testing:
    1. Offline / priori
    2. Online/ On-the- fly.
    Diffirent models in testing:
    1. Finite state machine:
    This model helps testers to assess the result depending on the input selected. There can be various combinations of the input which results in a corresponding state of the system.
    2. State charts:
    It is a continuation of Finite State Machine and can be used for complex and real time systems. State charts are used to explain various behaviours of the system. It is having the definite number of states. The behaviour of the system is analysed and represented in the form of events for each state.
    3. Unified modelling language (UML):
    It is a standardised general-purpose modelling language. UML includes a group of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of that can describe very complicated behaviour of the system.
    -challenges faced by Model base testing;
    Required Skills in testers
    Learning time will be more
    It is difficult to understand the model itself.
    Advantages:
    It is easy test case
    it improves test coverage
    It can Run different tests on number of machines
    Early defect detection
    Increase in defect count
    Cost is reduced.

  2. Model based Testing is a software testing technique which checks the run time behaviour of the software under test and is checked against predictions made by the model.
    There are many models available and also describe different aspects of the system behavior. Examples are:
    1. Data Flow
    2. Control Flow
    3. Dependency Graph
    4. Decision Tables
    5. State Transition Machines
    Types of Model based Testing:
    1. Offline/a priori: Generation of Test suites before executing it. A test suite is the collection of test cases.
    2. Online/On-the-Fly: Generation of test suites during Test execution.
    Different models in Testing:
    1. Finite State Machines
    2. State Charts
    3. Unified Modelling Language (UML)
    Challenges faced by the Model based testing:
    1. Required Skills in testers
    2. Learning time will be more
    3. It is difficult to understand the model itself.
    Advantages:
    1. It is easy test case
    2. It improves test coverage
    3. It can Run different tests on number of machines
    4. Early defect detection
    5. Increase in defect count
    6. Cost is reduced.

  3. Model based Testing is a software testing technique which checks the run time behavior of the software under test and is checked against predictions made by the model.A model is description of the system’s behavior and the behavior is described in terms of input sequences, actions, conditions, flow of data from input to output.

    There are many models available. For example:
    Data Flow
    Control Flow
    Dependency Graph
    Decision Table
    State transition Machines

    Types of Model Based Testing
    1. Offline/a priori : Generation of test suites before executing it. A test suite is a collection of test cases.
    2. Online/On-the-fly: Generation of test suites during test execution.

    Different models in testing:

    1. Finite state Machines: This model helps testes assess the result depending on the
    input selected.

    2. State Charts: This a continuation of Finite State Machines and can be used for complex and real time systems. State charts are used to explain various behaviors of the system. It has definite number of states. The behavior of the system is analysed and represented in the form of events for each state.

    3. Unified Modelling language: It includes a group of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of that can describe very complicated behavior of the system.

    Challenges faced by Model based testing:
    This method requires huge amount of investment and effort from an organization.

    Disadvantages of MBT:
    – Required skills in testers
    – Learning time will be more
    -The model is difficult to understand

    Advantages of MBT:
    -Easy test case
    -It improves test coverage
    -It can run different tests on number of machines
    -Early defect detection
    -Increase in defect count
    -Cost of testing is reduced

  4. Model Based Testing is a software testing technique that checks the runtime behavior of the software under test and compare it with the expected predictions made by the model.
    It tests elements like input sequences, actions, conditions, flow of data from input to output.
    It is important the data should be reusable, sharable, must have precise description of the system under test.
    The different models also capturing different aspects of system behavior
    1. Data Flow 2. Control Flow 3. Dependency Graph 4. Decision Tables 5.State Transition Machines
    There are three types of MBT :
    1. FINITE STATE MACHINES : This model helps testers to access the result depending on the inputs selected and is governed by a group of inputs given from testers.
    2. STATE CHARTS : Its continuation of finite state machines and is used for real time systems. it has definite no of states. The behavior of the system is analyzed and represented in form of events for each state.
    3. UML : It is standardized general purpose modelling language. It’s group of graphic techniques to create visual models of that can describe very complicated behavior of the system.
    UML notations : Actors, Activities. Business Process, components, programming languages

    Challenges : 1. requires skill in tester 2. more time for learning 3. difficult to learn the model
    Advantages : 1. Easy test case 2. improves test coverage 3. can run different tests on no of machines. 4. early defect detection 5. increase in defect count 6. reduced cost

  5. Model Based Testing : Describes the system behavior in response to an action . The behavior of the system can be explained through several factors like input sequence , action , flow of data from input to output . there are basically 3 models which are used in model based Testing:
    1. Finite State Machines
    2. State Charts
    3. Unified Modelling Language (UML):

  6. Model Based Testing
    Model based Testing is a software testing which tests the run time behaviour of the software under test and compares with the predicted model. A model is know as description of system behaviour, behaviour is sequence, actions , conditions , flow of data from input to output. It should be reuseable and sharable.
    Models of system behaviour
    Data Flow
    Control Flow
    Dependency Graph
    Decision Tables
    State Transition Machine
    Different models in Testing
    Finite state machine
    Input is given in groups by tester and it gives the ouput
    State Chart
    This is the continuation of finite state machine, it has different state and based on event is created
    UML(unified model language)
    It described in the mode of visual to make easy of complicated things

  7. Model based testing: is a software testing technique. a model is known as description of the systems behavior and behavior can be described in terms of i/p sequences, actions, conditions, flow of data from input to output.
    different ways of system behavior: data flow, control flow, dependency graph, decision table, state transition machines.
    Model based testing types :
    1. finite state machines : this model helps testers to assess the result depending on the i/p selected, this system is governed by a group of i/p’s given from testers.
    2. Start charts: it is continuation of FSM and can be used for complex and real time systems, state charts are used to explain various behaviors of the system it is having the definite number of states.
    defect state->new, fixed, re-open->inform
    3. unified modelling language: it is standardized general purpose modelling language.

  8. Here we see
    What is Model Based Testing?
    There are many models describe the different behaviour of the system.
    Types of Model based Testing.

  9. Model based Testing is a technique which checks the run time behaviour of the software under test and is checked against predictions made by the model. A Model is known as description of the system’s behavior which is shown in terms of input sequences, actions, conditions, flow of data from input to output.
    There are many models available to describe different aspects of the system behavior. Examples are:
    Data Flow
    Control Flow
    Dependency Graph
    Decision Tables
    State Transition Machines

    Types of Model based Testing
    Basically there are two types:
    Offline/a priori: Generation of Test suites before executing it. A test suite is the collection of test cases.
    Online/On-the-Fly: Generation of test suites during Test execution.

    The drawbacks of MBT in software engineering are:
    Required Skills in testers
    Learning time will be more
    It is difficult to understand the model itself.

    Advantages:
    It is easy test case
    it improves test coverage
    It can Run different tests on number of machines
    Early defect detection
    Increase in defect count
    Cost is reduced

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