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SDLC Iterative Incremental Model

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE – SDLC ITERATIVE/INCREMENTAL SDLC MODELS

Software is developed by following a standard set of steps called SDLC. The SDLC models are the standard approaches to develop the software. The SDLC models are broadly classified as sequential design steps and incremental/iterative models. Read my two articles:

SDLC steps: https://www.h2kinfosys.com/blog/software-development-life-cycle/ and
SDLC sequential models: https://www.h2kinfosys.com/blog/sdlc-models/

The two common examples of iterative/incremental SDLC models are the spiral model and agile scrum models.

The spiral model is iterative process applicable for risk-based projects having a high risk of software failure. In each iteration, the IT project team works with partial project requirements to develop the software in many iterations called as spirals. All the steps of software development life cycle are followed in every spiral. The new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral and the risk analysis is more emphasized. In risk analysis, the feasibility of requirements with existing software is to be checked to avoid the breakdown and adverse effects in software.

spiral model

Agile model is getting increasingly popular due to its suitability in the current project scenarios. The changing and unpredictable project environment call for reorganizing and being quickly responsive to these changes. The adaptability and learning tendency of a team is extremely important for agile development. To understand the agile history and manifesto, read  http://agilemanifesto.org/history.html In the agile framework, there are Scrum, Kanban, and many others. Agile scrum being a popular one. In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented. In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team. Product owner identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented in the sprint. Scrum master plans and controls the sprints. The team refers to a technical group that includes business analyst, architects, developers, and software testers who are responsible for completion of the sprint.

In the agile workflow, product owners come up with product backlog document which has a list of features to be implemented in the sprint, listed based on priority. The sprint starts with planning. The activities to be conducted in the sprint are tracked using sprint backlog document. The daily scrums are the meetings conducted to gather updates on the project. After the sprint, the potentially shippable product is presented to the client by the team. The retrospective meeting is conducted by the team to discuss the improvements to be done in the sprint.

The team and customer interactions, being responsive to the changes, quick release of the software make the agile most accepted methodology for many projects.

Check your understanding?
1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
2. What is Agile Scrum?
3. What is a Sprint?
4. What are user stories?

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73 thoughts on “SDLC Iterative Incremental Model”

  1. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design? Interactive create prototypes and is cyclic incremental is designing software in small parts and releasing them over time.
    2. What is Agile Scrum? software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint
    3. What is a Sprint? the small incremental development of project part
    4. What are user stories? a tool used in Agile software development to capture a description of a software feature from an end-user perspective

  2. 1. Sequential- The new requirements or changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable eg water fall& v model
    Iterative/incremental-The new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral and the risk analysis is more emphasized
    eg spiral model and agile scrum models.

    2. Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies based on iterative development.

    3. In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product .
    4. Stories are Features or business requirements of a sprint

  3. 1.Difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    “sequential processes” are one alternative. Changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable. This is often called a “waterfall development” process.
    An iterative or incremental development process changes in requirements are accepted and implemented. These are often used in
    spiral model and agile scrum models.
    2.Agile Scrum.
    an Agile framework for completing complex projects and Scrum is an agile project management methodology or framework used primarily for software development projects with the goal of delivering new software capability every 2-4 weeks.
    3.Sprint
    sprint is a set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review.

  4. In Sequential design, all the steps in SDLC must be followed in order, and changes to requirements are difficult to be implemented. Iterative/Incremental designs such as Agile is good model when the project is unpredictable. Any new changes/ improvements can easily be adapted into the system.
    Agile Scrum – team consists of Product Owner, Scrum Master, and the technical team. PO identifies the priorities, Scrum Master facilitates the sprints, and technical team builds the software.
    Sprint – Time intervals where the team works collectively towards a potentially shippable product. Sprints are usually 2-3 weeks long.
    User Stories – Are detailed descriptions of desired functionalities that need to be implemented in the software.

  5. 1. Sequential design- waterfall and V-model and Iterative/incremental design- agile model
    2. Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies based on iterative development.
    3. In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint

  6. 1) sequential design can not accept changes in the mid of the project
    Increment design changes are accepted as the product is made and release in increment
    2)agile scrum is a iterative design where software is developed in several increments
    3)software develop in several increments called sprint
    4)Users story helps to understand the requirements of the software

  7. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    1. Sequential design approach such as Waterfall and V models.They follow top down approach.Changes of requirement are not added in mid of project.So in starting only clear and complete requirement are gathered.This type of models are suitable for simple and low budget project.
    Iterative approach spiral and agile scrum.In this type of modules risk analysis is emphasized.Any new changes are accepted in agile.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    2. Agile Scrum means software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.we have more control on agile scrum compare to agile.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    3. When a software is developed in several incremental is called as a sprint.
    4. What are user stories?
    4. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented.

  8. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    In Sequential design changes in the projects requirement during the development is not allowed.
    An iterative or incremental development process changes in project requirements are accepted and the changes are made .
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Due to the changing and unpredictable project environment , in agile scrum the software is developed in small increments so they can quickly respond to the changes.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    Software developed in small increments in agile scrum is called sprint.
    4. What are user stories?
    My guess is all the functions the software is written for.

  9. 1. Sequential models are used for simple projects while iterative models are used for complex projects. Eg : sequential: waterfall model, V model
    iterative: spiral, agile

    2. Agile scrum is a s/w development procedure which is most suitable for the unpredictable project requirement and is most responsive. The s/w is developed in various increments called sprints.

    3. Sprint is described as the various incremental levels that are developed in an agile scrum s/w deveopment model. In every sprint few requirements are developed into a shippable product.

    4. User stories are the features that are to be implemented in a s/w

  10. Sequential Models – this are followed for simple projects eg- waterfall model and V model.
    Iterative/Incremental Models- are for those in which risk-based projects having a high risk of software failure, so the testing is done at each level. eg- Spiral and Agile scrum.
    Agile Scrum – software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. in this they carry 3 roles product owner, scrum master and team.
    sprint – this are the requirements given by the client to develop the s/w to the scrum master to build the s/w.
    User stories -As per my view this is nothing but UAT or Beta level where the end users have their own functional requirements of the software.

  11. 1).Sequential design – SDLC follows water fall method the requirements are not changed in the middle , after one phase of the project is completed then another phase starts like planning, coding and testing is done respectively
    In inerative/incremental -SDLC follows Agile methodology , requirements will be prioritized
    and will be done in sprint model which will help to deliver them in multiple incremental phases.

    3)Software developed in small increments in agile scrum is called sprint
    4)User stories are the features which help to understand the requirements and implementation respectively,

  12. 1. Sequential design : The water fall model complete one at a time and they do not over lap ,it works well for small projects.
    not good for complex project.

    Iterative /incremental Models: This model is flexible , easy to test. Need more planing and design at every step.

    2. Software developed in small increments in Agile Scrum is called Sprint.

    3. A user story helps to create a simplified description of a requirement.

  13. 1. In sequential design software development follows top down approach where project is predictive and changes can not be implemented in mid-level has to go through from start again, where as iterative/incremental design works are phased in several incremental steps and changes/requirements can be easily implemented and presented to clients as a shippable product.
    2. Agile Scrum is iterative/incremental type SDLC model where changes can be quickly implemented to meet clients requirement.
    3. In Agile scrum SDLC model software is developed in several incremental called sprint where the few requirements are implanted and presented to clients as a shippable product.
    4. User stories is what features to be implemented and what it will do for client.

  14. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential- : In sequential design each step of testing is completed before going to next step. Need to have all the requirements before starting the project.The new requirements or changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable eg water fall& v model
    Iterative/incremental-The new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral and the risk analysis is more emphasized .eg spiral model and agile scrum models.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile Scrum : It is a iterative / incremental type of SDLC model. It is used where it has frequent changes in the requirements. where software is developed in several incrementals called as a sprint. It has 3 groups : 1. Scrum master 2. Product owner 3. Team.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint(or iteration). In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks.with two weeks being the most common.
    4. What are user stories?
    User Story: A user story is a description of a feature (functionalities/requirments)told from the perspective of the person who desires the new capability, usually a user or customer of the system.

  15. 1. In sequential design, the new requirements or changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable, however in iterative / incremental design, the new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral as the work progresses.
    2. Agile Scrum is iterative/incremental SDLC model ,where, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint
    3. Sprint is the increment by which Agile Scrum in iterative/incremental SDLC model is developed.
    4. User stories are the feature or business requirements given for production of software.

  16. 1. Sequential design is a broad classification of the SDLC that follows a Sequential approach where changes in requirements in the middle of a project are rejected. This design is simple and low budget. Iterative/incremental design is a broad classification of the SDLC in which changes in requirements of software in the middle of a project are accepted. This design is usually time consuming and expensive.
    2. Agile scrum is an iterative/incremental SDLC model in which software is developed in several increments called sprints.
    3. Sprint is an increment in the agile scrum model in which a potentially shippable software product is developed.
    4. User stories are two liners in the agile model where users describe the features to be implemented in the product.

  17. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?

    NEw requirements are not accepted in sequential design ..where as interatie design, changes are accepted,
    2. Agile scrum is an iterative/incremental SDLC model in which software is developed in several increments called sprints.
    3. Sprint is Software developed in small increments in agile scrum .
    4.User stories are the business requirements given by the Client for production of software.

  18. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    A1 : In sequential design, new changes will not be accepted and it is not possible to go back in previous stages. spiral design is based on incremental model and new changes in requirements will be accepted and implemented at each stage of the spiral.

    What is Agile Scrum?
    A2 : Agile is a framework and Scrum is a methodology in agile where software is developed in several incremental releases called as sprint.

    What is a Sprint?
    A3 : In agile scrum model software is developed in several incremental releases called as sprint.

    What are user stories?
    A4 : User stories are set of requirements based on clients’s need.

  19. 1. Sequential models are used for simple projects it follows the Sequential approach where changes in requirements in the middle of a project are not accepted. This design is simple and low budget. while iterative models are used for complex projects, changes are accepted and made as and when it arises. It is time consuming and expensive. Eg : sequential: waterfall model, V model; iterative: spiral, agile
    2. Agile scrum is most suitable for the unpredictable project requirement . The software is developed in various increments called sprints.
    3. Sprint is described as the various incremental levels that are developed in an agile scrum software development model. In every sprint few requirements are developed into a shippable product.
    4. User stories are the requirements given by the client.

  20. sequential design to go through a project once time and expects the software to be completed

    Agile scrum Is a methodology in agil where software are developed in

    Agile Scrum is a type of development that is use to complete small peices of development quickly.

    3. What is a Sprint?
    Software develop and small increment it’s called sprint

    A sprint is a iteration in the agile-scrum method.

    4. What are user stories?
    Information from client

  21. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    In sequential design each step of testing is completed before going to next step. Need to have all the requirements before starting the project.
    Whereas Iterative/incremental design works on partial requirements, changes in the mid of the project are possible.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile scrum is a iterative design where software is developed in several incremental called Sprint.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    sprint is a particular time period in which a particular work has to be assigned and should be ready to be presented, they are mostly for 2 weeks or for weeks.
    4. What are user stories?
    Are detailed descriptions of desired functionalities that need to be implemented in the software.

  22. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design have two kind of models Waterfall and V-Model. In both models first of all, the information will collected from the client by BA team and then design and develop the software. Once software design has started, client wont be able to make any change. These model use for simple software and low budget.
    Iterative/Incremental design also have two kind of model Spiral and Agile. Both model work as an interactive and incremental way. Software development can start with very basic requirements or partial information. software development team keep revisiting at any phase of the software for add/remove/change until all requirement are not matching according to the client demands or end user. These model use for complex software and high budget.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile is a framework and Scrum is a methodology which use in agile model. Agile Scrum is suitable for those project which are frequently changes the requirements. It works in interactive ways that encourage the improvement of the software at each phase of the module.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    Software developed in many incremental ways and one development cycle in scrum called Sprint in Agile Scrum method. One sprint has done in 1 to 4 weeks depends on the software and team. Each sprint have some done developed requirement. The developer team can deliver the product(sprint)at end of the cycle.
    4. What are user stories?
    User stories is the way which use in Agile method of describing the features of the software according to the end user requirement, what they want, why,and types of users.

  23. Q1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    A1. Sequential design approach such as Waterfall and V models.They follow top down approach.Changes of requirement are not added in mid of project.So in starting only clear and complete requirement are gathered.This type of models are suitable for simple and low budget project.
    Iterative approach spiral and agile scrum.In this type of modules risk analysis is emphasized.Any new changes are accepted in agile.
    Q2. What is Agile Scrum?
    A2. Agile Scrum means software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.we have more control on agile scrum compare to agile.
    Q3. What is a Sprint?
    A3. When a software is developed in several incremental is called as a sprint.
    Q4. What are user stories?
    A4. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented.

  24. Q1.Sequential model follows sequential approach or top-down approach to develop the software,changes and new requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable.Software development starts with clear and complete requirements from clients.Suitable for simple and low budget projects. Whereas the iterative/incremental model software is developed in increments or iterations,changes and new requirements are accepted and implemented in each increment.This is complex, expensive and time consuming.Used for high risk, safety critical projects.
    Q2.Agile scrum is iterative/incremental SDLC modle, where software is developed in several increments called Sprint.
    Q3.Sprint is an iteration in Agile Scrum SDLC modle.In every sprint, a few requirements are developed into potentially shippable product.
    Q4.User stories are two-line description of features to be implemented in the project.

  25. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design – is one step after another.

    In iterative/incremental design – the software is developed in many iterations. In each iteration, the SDLC is followed.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?

    Agile Scrum is an iterative model followed using the Agile methodology. Scrum is iterative.

    3. What is a Sprint?

    In every Sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product is developed in 2-4 weeks

    4. What are user stories?

    User Stories are requirements that are to be developed by the developer.

  26. 1. Main difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design is that in sequential design, product is developed in steps and when one step is over, one cannot return and repeat it. In iterative, product is built in small increments called iterations and in every increment, the SDLC is followed.
    2. Agile Scrum is an iterative model of SDLC
    3. In Agile methodology, the product development is divided into releases and each release is divided into sprints which is usually measured in weeks.
    4. User stories are requirements of the client.

  27. 1. Ans.: The difference between sequential design & iterative/incremental design is:
    Sequential design is the top down approach for a software development. This kind of module is used in low risk projects & there is no scope to make any changes in the requirement in middle of the project. Cannot go back to previous step. Examples: Waterfall Model, V-Model.
    WHEREAS,
    Iterative/Incremental Design is mainly used for high risk projects where there are constant changes in requirement. The software is developed in small increments & tested at each level. Spiral & Agile are two modules followed in this design.
    2. Ans.: Agile Scrum is the module or approach used for SDLC. In Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental. Agile Scrum is being a popular one. Three roles in Agile Scrum are product owner, Scrum master & team.
    3. Ans.: In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called sprint. In every sprint few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two or four weeks.
    4. Ans.: User stories are tools used in Agile software development to capture a description of a software feature from an end-user perspective. The user story described the type of user, what they want & why. A user story helps to create a simplified description of a requirements.

  28. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design
    Sequential models such as Waterfall or V-Model rely on intensive periods of collecting and refining requirements for a product before design and development activity can take place. Products developed using these models are intended to be complete when released to customers. Central to the approach is an assumption that by adhering to the requirements captured at the outset, the product will fulfil the wishes of those customers.
    Iterative/incremental design
    Sequential model is in contrast with iterative ways of working, with an emphasis on delivering less complex products, often to test customer response before making adjustments. The techniques encourage regular feedback from customers, and rapid response to that feedback; refining ideas and revisiting design and development activities with the intention of delivering products which better reflect what customers want.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    In the Agile Scrum world, instead of providing complete, detailed descriptions of how everything is to be done on a project, much of it is left up to the Scrum software development team. This is why in Scrum development, for example, a sprint planning meeting is described in terms of the desired outcome. The Scrum model suggests that projects progress via a series of sprints. During an agile Scrum sprint, the Scrum team takes a small set of features from idea to coded and tested functionality. At the end, these features are done, meaning coded, tested and integrated into the evolving product or system.

    3. What is a Sprint?
    In product development, a sprint is a set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review.

    4. What are user stories?
    User stories are one of the primary development artifacts for Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP) project teams. A user story is a very high-level definition of a requirement, containing just enough information so that the developers can produce a reasonable estimate of the effort to implement it.

  29. 1. sequential design : It follows the top-down approach to develop the software, and it limits to the simple project. ex) waterfall model, V model
    iterative/incremental design: complex software solution. ex) spiral model and agile scrum models.
    2.agile scrum:Scrum is an agile way to manage a project, framework for managing process. In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks.
    3. sprint: software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint
    4. user stories: the features to be implemented

  30. The spiral model is iterative process applicable for risk-based projects having a high risk of software failure.
    Agile scrum being a popular one. In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shipable product in two to four weeks.
    In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team.
    What are the difference between Sequential and iterative modes
    Sequential : take requirement from the original and apply develop the software.
    iterative: take the requirement from the original and develop the software and get feedback before you release for final user.

  31. 1. (a)Sequential design: top down approach for small project
    (b) iterative/incremental design: constant changes in the requirement and software is developed in an increment.
    2. Agile scrum: Software is developed in increments called sprint, which is a shipable product
    3. Sprint: Potentially shipable product.

  32. 1 Sequential design, the new requirements or changes are not accepted. Water fall, V model
    Interative, incremental, the new changes or requirements are implemented and accepted in each spiral emphasizing the risk analysis.
    2 Agile software development is a group of software development methodology on iterative based on several increments.
    3 In the Agile scrum, software is developed in several increments called sprint.
    4 user Stories, the project details in which requirements , functions, budget are given by the clients.

  33. Sequential is a top to down approach and new requirements are not allowed in the middle of the project. used in simple and low budget projects.
    Iterative or incremental model is mainly used in high risk projects where there is a constant need of new requirements.
    Agile scrum – software is developed in several incremental release called scrum
    Sprint is a group of requirements are developed into potentially shippable product in 2-4 weeks.
    User stories describe the features to be implemented

  34. 1.The difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design:
    *The sequential processes are waterfall model, V model etc.
    -Waterfall model is also known as the traditional model, classic model, predictive model. It follows the top-down approach to develop the software, hence the name waterfall model. The new requirements or changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable.
    -The V model has the four levels of software testing- the Component(unit) testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing levels. At each level of software development, different documents produced are used as Test Basis.
    *The two common examples of iterative/incremental SDLC models are the spiral model and agile scrum models.
    -The spiral model is iterative process applicable for risk-based projects having a high risk of software failure.All the steps of software development life cycle are followed in every spiral.
    The new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral and the risk analysis is more emphasized.
    In risk analysis, the feasibility of requirements with existing software is to be checked to avoid the breakdown and adverse effects in software.
    -Agile model : The changing and unpredictable project environment call for reorganizing and being quickly responsive to these changes. The adaptability and learning tendency of a team is extremely important for agile development. In the agile framework, there are Scrum, Kanban, and many others. Agile scrum being a popular one.
    2. Agile Scrum: In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented. In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team. Product owner identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented in the sprint. Scrum master plans and controls the sprints. The team refers to a technical group that includes business analyst, architects, developers, and software testers who are responsible for completion of the sprint.
    3. Sprint: In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks.
    4.User Stories:The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented.

  35. 1. Sequential Design Iterative/Incremental Design
    – These models only go in one direction – These models go in a repetitive sequence
    – New requirements or changes cannot be added in the middle – New requirements or changes can be added in the middle
    – Suitable for low budget projects – Suitable for high risk based projects
    – Time consuming – Time consuming if there are many iterations
    – Models are Waterfall, V model – Models are Spiral, Agile Scrum, etc
    2. In Agile Scrum, Agile is the framework and Scrum is the methodology.
    3. In the Agile Scrum model, software is developed in several increments called as a sprint.
    4. User stories are 2 line functional requirements used in agile models.

  36. 1. Sequential Design approach is a top-down approach in SDLC. In this method, there is no scope to change or add the requirements once development is started. This approach is only good for low risk and low budget projects. Waterfall model and V-model come under Sequential Design.
    While in Iterative/Incremental approach, the IT project team works with partial project requirements to develop the software. In this process, new features and changes in requirement are accepted and implemented. These approaches are good for high risk and high budget projects.
    2. Agile is a framework and scrum is methodology under agile.
    3. A sprint is a group of task or requirements which are part of functionalities that is to be done.
    4. User stories are the small list of business requirement that is to be developed by developers.

  37. Difference between sequential design and iterative/ incremental design:
    -Sequential design is for simple projects and low budget projects. All the steps should follow in same sequential manner. It is a top down approach where new requirements or changes are not accepted in the middle of the project.
    -Iterative/incremental design is for complex and risky projects. Software is released in several modules. New requirements or changes are accepted in the middle of the project. This model is quite expensive and time consuming.
    2. Agile Scrum: Agile is a framework and Scrum is a methodology in Agile. Software is released in several modules to the client called sprint. Three key roles in this model are:
    -Product Owner: identifies & Priorities the features to be implemented in the sprint.
    -Scrum master: Plans and controls the sprint.
    -team: Refers to a technical group that includes BA, architects, developers and software testers who are responsible for the completion of sprint.
    3. Sprint: Developing and releasing the software in different modules.
    4. User stories: It is a way of describing the feature in a two or more lines.
    E.g.: I need login so that I can view account.

  38. A great insight into the incremental model of SDLC, this article provides talks in detail about Agile Scrum and Spiral models, their features and suitability.

  39. In sequential design all the requirements of developing software is followed in order and new features or changes cannot be accepted in the middle of the project. In iterative design, the IT project team work on partial requirements of the project, and any new features and changes can be accepted during the development of the project.

    Agile is a framework of SDLC and Agile scrum is a methadology in Agile. In which IT team work on each requirement of the project.

    In the Agile Scrum model, software is developed in several increments called as a sprint.

    User stories are the client requirement.

  40. 1. Sequential- any new changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable

    Iterative/Incremental-The new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral.

    2.Agile scrum is a iterative design where software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.

    3. When a software is developed in several incremental it is called Sprint

    4. The two-line user stories in agile model that describe the features to be implemented.

  41. Sequential Design the emphasis is on collecting correct and complete requirements from the client before the project is started Once the requirements are gathered from the client the software development life cycle begins and project is completed based on the initial requirements to meet the needs of the client. Once the project underway any new requirements from the customer cannot be accepted and have to be turned down or rejected . Waterfall Model and V Model are the examples of Sequential Design. However, on the other hand Spiral and Agile Scrum are both based on iterative or incremental design where the project starts with incomplete or partial requirements and then the modules of the software are released to the customer for their constant feedback. New requirements are added in small increments or in cycles in Iterative design method as per the changes or the requirement of the software.
    Agile is the framework and Scrum is the testing methodology in Agile. Software is deployed in several incremental releases called sprint . For example instant skyscrapers is perfect example of modular construction.
    User story is a two line story from user perspective i.e. way of describing the feature of the software and is usually written by Business Analysts

  42. 1.)Sequential model also know as traditional model:
    Sequential design follows a step by step or top-down approach to develop the software.
    The new requirements or changes in the mid of the project are not acceptable. This model is mainly preferred in low budget projects.
    Iterative/ Incremental Design :
    This design is mainly used for high risk projects where there are constant changes in requirements. The software is developed in small increments and tested at each level. There are two modules followed a) Spiral b) Agile.

    2)Agile Scrum: In this model,the software is developed in several increments called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks.
    3.Sprint : Is a iteration in a SDLC. The sprint starts with planning. The activities to be conducted in the sprint are tracked using sprint backlog document.

    4.)User stories:-user stories are the features of sprint requirements given by the product owner.

  43. Difference between Sequential and iterative models:
    Sequential design is the top down approach for the development of software,this is good for simple and low budget projects,in this no new requirement is not possible in the mid of projects. eg: waterfall model,V model.
    Iterative model is used for high risk project where there will be constant changes in requirement of the software.The software is developed in small increments and tested in each level. eg: spiral model, Agile scrum.

    What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile Scrum is a popular known model in iterative design,for current projects because of frequent changes in between the
    project. Agile Scrum has 3 roles called Product owner,Scrum master,team.Product owner identifies the features and prioritizes them implemented in the sprint
    Scrum master controls the sprint and team is a technical group like QA,Developers,BA etc.,who are responsible foe the completion of sprint.

    What is a Sprint?
    Software is developed in several incremental release called Sprint.

    what are user stories?
    A way of discribing the features of the software.

  44. Difference between Sequential and Iterative Model —
    Sequential Process is limited to Simple Projects. The popular models that follow this process is
    Waterfall Model – It follows the top down approach to develop the software.
    V-Model- It has 4 levels of software testing such as Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance testing.

    Iterative process are for risk based projects. The models that follow this process are
    Spiral Model – Applicable for risk based projects having a risk of software failure.
    Agile Model – It is mostly used now in current projects due to its sutiability.

    What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented. In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team.

    What is a sprint?
    Software is developed in several incremental called as sprint.

    What are User Stories?
    User stories describe the features to be implemented.

  45. iterative models:
    Sequential design is the top down approach for the development of software,this is good for simple and low budget projects,in this no new requirement is not possible in the mid of projects. eg: waterfall model,V model.
    Iterative model is used for high risk project where there will be constant changes in requirement of the software.The software is developed in small increments and tested in each level. eg: spiral model, Agile scrum.

    What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile scrum is a iterative design where software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.

    What is a Sprint?
    Software is developed in several incremental release called Sprint.

    what are user stories?
    A way of discribing the features of the software.

  46. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design is usually for low risk projects with top down approach. Iterative / incremental design is generally used for high risk projects that have constant changes due to requirement of the client.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile Is a framework and Scrum is methodology in Agile.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    Sprint is the term for software developed in incremental releases
    4. What are user stories?
    User stories is a dialog box of 2 line description that states the features of the software written by BA

  47. Q.1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    – The sequential Design follows the top-down approach .
    The new requirements or changes in the requirements in the project are not acceptable. The IT team starts the software
    development processes with clear and complete requirement from the client. This model is applicable only for simple and low
    budget projects.Example (Waterfall and V- model)
    – The Iterative/Incremental Design model is used for high risk project where there will be constant changes in requirement of
    the software.The software is developed in small increments and tested in each level. eg: spiral model, Agile scrum.
    The IT project team works with partial project requirements to develop the software in many iterations called as spirals in
    Spiral Model and in small sprints in Agile Scrum methodology.

    Q. 2. What is Agile Scrum?
    – Agile scrum is a Iterative/ Incremental design where software is developed in several sprints . Agile is actually a
    framework and Scrum is the methodology in Agile.

    Q.3. What is a Sprint?
    – In Agile methodology software are developed in to several incremental known as sprint(A small unit of project or short
    duration milestone typically last for 2-3 weeks in duration ) These small breakdown of project is called Sprint.

    Q.4. What are user stories?
    – A User Story is a tool used in agile software Development to capture a description of a software feature from an end user
    perspective. The User Story describes the type of user, what they want and why. A user story helps to create a simplified
    description of a requirement. Usually the requirements are given by client in the 2 to 3 line sentences.

  48. Sequential design: it follows top down approach. It is limited to easy and simple projects. All the requirements should be known before starting with the project.

    Iterative/ incremental design: this design models are applicable for risk-based projects and it involves high budget projects. In each iteration partial requirements are provided to develop the application. Have to follow many iterations to complete the development of the application.

    It is an iterative model, and an advance form of Agile model. Where the drawback of Agile model has overcome.
    The drawback of agile model is , they deviate from plan or objectives. So we overcome this problem using Agile scrum model. We implement tracking of activities/ task know as sprints. We develop each functionalities and we release as when it is done. We do not wait till the completion of the project. We create various documents to track the sprints: Product backlog document, sprint burndown chart, release burndown chart. We need people to keep track of all the activities. So, we have product owner, scrum master, team members.

    Sprint: It is a activity or task which is part of the functionality that is to be performed. The sprint should be completed in a week or 30 days period.

    user stories: Functionalities / requirements listed by client .

  49. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?

    The Iterative design does not need the full list of requirements before the project starts.  Iterative process applicable for risk-based projects having a high risk of software failure.

    The Sequential Test is a decision making tool designed to ensure that areas at little or no risk of flooding are developed in preference to areas of higher risk.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team. Product owner identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented in the sprint. Scrum master plans and controls the sprints. The team refers to a technical group that includes business analyst, architects, developers, and software testers who are responsible for completion of the sprint.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    The sprint starts with planning. The activities to be conducted in the sprint are tracked using sprint backlog document. The daily scrums are the meetings conducted to gather updates on the project.
    4. What are user stories?
    A user story is a tool used in Agile software development to capture a description of a software feature from an end-user perspective. The user story describes the type of user, what they want and why. A user story helps to create a simplified description of a requirement.

  50. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design follows top-down approach. The new requirements or changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable. Once they gathered all requirements, then only they move to analysis phase. The sequential processes are limited to the simple projects.
    Iterative – performing repeatedly, i.e. adding new functionality in a repetitive or cyclic manner. The new features and changes in requirements are accepted in iterative incremental model.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile Scrum is an iterative/incremental SDLC model.
    In Agile Scrum, the three roles are-
    product owner,
    scrum master and
    team.
    Product owner identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented in the sprint.
    Scrum master plans and controls the sprints.
    The team refers to a technical group that includes business analyst, architects, developers, and software testers who are responsible for completion of the sprint.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.
    4. What are user stories?
    user stories describe the features to be implemented.

  51. Q-1: What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design is a top-down development approach where the new requirements or changes in the requirements in the middle of the project are not acceptable. The IT team starts the software development processes with clear and complete requirements from the client. This model is applicable only for simple and low budget projects.
    Iterative and incremental software development begins with planning and continues through iterative development cycles involving continuous user feedback and the incremental addition of features concluding with the deployment of completed software at the end of each cycle.

    Q-2: What is Agile Scrum?
    – Agile is a framework and scrum is methodology in the agile framework. Agile scrum consists of many sprints.

    Q-3: What is a Sprint?
    – Sprint is one development cycle in Scrum. Software is developed in several incremental releases know as sprints. Sprint is Scrum specific, hence sprint is an iteration but not all forms of iterations are Sprints.

    Q-4: What are user stories?
    – A user story is a very high-level definition of a requirement, containing just enough information so that the developers can produce a reasonable estimate of the effort to implement it. In other words, the user story describes the type of user, what they want and why. A user story helps to create a simplified description of a requirement.

  52. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    The sequential design such as Waterfall model represents a linear flow of events. The development process moves steadily downward step by step completing each stage and moving forward to the next. The tasks are finished without pending as the developers cannot go back to the previous stage once they start with the next. This is one of the oldest models used in software development. Whereas, Iterative and Incremental model was developed to compensate for the drawbacks of the waterfall model. It begins with a planning on the phases and tasks associated. With cyclic interactions in between, the development model ends with the deployment of the planned features. In this model, developers create the system through the iterative and incremental process repetitions and in short segments, thereby helping developers to implement the newly learned ideas during earlier development stages.
    What is Agile Scrum?
    an Agile framework for completing complex projects and Scrum is an agile project management methodology or framework used primarily for software development projects with the goal of delivering new software capability every 2-4 weeks.
    What is a Sprint?
    Sprint is described as the various incremental levels that are developed in an agile scrum s/w development model. In every sprint few requirements are developed and submit to the client for approval.
    What are user stories?
    User stories represents a small piece of business value that a team can deliver in an iteration and are the feature or business requirements given for production of software.

  53. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design? -In sequential design , each steps will be done in sequential order and will not be able to go back to the previous step for correcting any errors or changes in the requirements . -In Iterative model the steps of SDLC ,are done in each part of the development of the software, so changes can be done in any step . User involvement is there at each step. Good for high risk ,high budget projects.
    2. What is Agile Scrum? Agile Scrum is an iterative / incremental type of SDLC model. It is used where it has frequent changes in the requirements. where software is developed in several incrementals called sprint
    3. What is a Sprint? sprint is an iteration in the agile-scrum method.
    4. . What are user stories? User stories are Functionalities / requirements listed or described by client .

  54. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    In the sequential design team follows the top-down approach to develop the software, hence the name waterfall model. The new requirements or changes in the requirements in the mid of the project are not acceptable. The IT team starts the software development processes with clear and complete requirements from the client. The sequential processes are limited to the simple projects. Whereas iterative/ incremental design process is applicable for risk-based projects having a high risk of software failure. In each iteration, the IT project team works with partial project requirements to develop the software in many iterations called as spirals. All the steps of software development life cycle are followed in every spiral. The new features and changes in requirements are accepted and implemented in each spiral and the risk analysis is more emphasized. In risk analysis, the feasibility of requirements with existing software is to be checked to avoid the breakdown and adverse effects in software.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.
    4. What are user stories?
    The user story describes the type of user, what they want and why a user story helps to create a simplified description of a requirement.

  55. 1) Incremental Design: Adding new functionality in small chunks.
    Iterative Design: Performimg repetitive, i.e. adding new functionality in a repetitive or cycle manner.
    2) Agile scrum: Agile software development with scrum is often perceived as a methodology, it is a framework for managing a process. Scrum is an agile way to manage a project.
    3) What is Sprint: Agile scrum software is develoved in several incremental called as Sprint. 4) User stories: User stories are one of the primary development artifacts for scrum and extream programming (XP) project team.

  56. 1) sequential design can not accept changes in the middle of the project.
    Increment design changes are accepted as the product is made and release in incremental.
    2)agile scrum is a iterative design where software is developed in several increments.
    3)software develop in several increments called sprint
    4)Users story helps to understand the requirements of the software.It is two-line description of features to be implemented in the project.

  57. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    The sequential design follows the top down approach to develop the software and the change of requirements in the middle of the project are not acceptable. The IT teams starts the SDLC process by gathering clear and complete requirements as change is not acceptable. This method is used for simple and low budget projects.
    Iterative

    In iterative approach the project broken down into several modules where each iteration has its own SDLC process and a functional software is being developed at the end of every sprint. Changes are acceptable within each sprint and thus making the approach more agile.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    In the Agile Scrum, the project is developed in several time boxed event of 2-4 weeks called Sprint. The requirements of the sprint are chosen and a potentially shippable product is developed. User stories are used to describe the requirements in a simplistic way.

    3. What is a Sprint?
    A Sprint is a time boxed event of 2-4 weeks during which a potentially shippable product increment is developed and have a consistent duration.

    4. What are user stories?
    User story is a description of a software feature from an end-user perspective. The user story describes the type of user, what they want and why. A user story helps to create a simplified description of a requirement.

  58. Difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design;
    Sequential design:
    -top down approach
    -proceed single direction cannot go to previous phase
    -get clear requirements at the beginning
    -use this for small low budget project
    Iterative/incremental design:
    -new requirements can be accepted in each phases.
    -it is used in high risk projects
    -more expensive but it is acceptable because it is implemented for the riskier project.
    Agile scrum:Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented. In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team.
    Sprint:Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.
    User story: user story describes the client requirements.

  59. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    In Sequential design each step of testing is completed before going on to the next step. They should have all the requirements before starting the project. It can be used only for low budget projects.
    Whereas in Iterative/incremental design works on partial requirements ,and client can add or change other requirements in the middle of the project )
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.
    4. What are user stories?
    The user story describes the type of user, and describe the features to be implemented.

  60. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    sequential design is top down process in which one cannot go back for any changes in requirements.
    products developed using these models are intended to be complete when released to customers.
    In iterative/incremental design new requirements can be accepted and can be implemented in each increments.
    it is used in high risk projects where there is a chance of adding new requirements.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    It is a iterative / incremental type of SDLC model. It is used where it has frequent changes
    in the requirements.
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint.
    In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially ship able product in two to four weeks.

    It has 3 groups : 1. Scrum master 2. Product owner 3. Team.
    Product owner identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented in the sprint.
    Scrum master plans and controls the sprints. The team refers to a technical group that includes business analyst,
    architects, developers, and software testers who are responsible for completion of the sprint.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    A sprint is a module of the project.
    in each sprint few requirements are developed into a potentially ship able product.

    4. What are user stories?

    user stories are the two-line descriptions of the features to be implemented.

  61. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?

    Sequential or big-design-up-front (BDUF) models, such as waterfall, is an SDLC model which focuses on complete and correct planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results, where every business requirement (recorded in the analysis phase of the SDLC in a document called the Business Requirements Specification) is translated into feature/functional descriptions (recorded in the design phase in a document called the Functional Specification) which are then all built in one go as a collection of solution features typically over a period of months. E.g. the waterfall model which emphasizes that a logical progression of steps be taken throughout the software development life cycle (SDLC), much like the cascading steps down an incremental waterfall. While the popularity of the waterfall model has waned over recent years in favor of more agile methodologies, the logical nature of the sequential process used in the waterfall method cannot be denied, and it remains a common design process in the industry. The sequential processes are limited to the simple projects. The changing trends in Information technology and complex software solutions required from the clients have urged the need for iterative/incremental approaches.

    The Incremental approach is a method of software development where the model is designed, implemented and tested incrementally (a little more is added each time) until the product is finished. It involves both development and maintenance. The product is defined as finished when it satisfies all of its requirements
    The Iterative Design is a design methodology based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refining a product or process. Based on the results of testing the most recent iteration of a design, changes and refinements are made. This process is intended to ultimately improve the quality and functionality of a design. In iterative design, interaction with the designed system is used as a form of research for informing and evolving a project, as successive versions, or iterations of a design are implemented.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Scrum is an agile framework for managing software development. It is designed for teams of three to nine members, who break their work into actions that can be completed within time boxed iterations, called “sprints”, no longer than one month and most commonly two weeks, then track progress and re-plan in 15-minute time-boxed stand-up meetings, called daily scrums.
    Scrum is a lightweight, iterative and incremental framework for managing software development. It defines “a flexible, holistic product development strategy where a development team works as a unit to reach a common goal”, challenges assumptions of the “traditional, sequential approach” to product development, and enables teams to self-organize by encouraging physical co-location or close online collaboration of all team members, as well as daily face-to-face communication among all team members and disciplines involved.
    A key principle of Scrum is the dual recognition that customers will change their minds about what they want or need (often called requirements volatility) and that there will be unpredictable challenges—for which a predictive or planned approach is not suited. As such, Scrum adopts an evidence-based empirical approach—accepting that the problem cannot be fully understood or defined up front, and instead focusing on how to maximize the team’s ability to deliver quickly, to respond to emerging requirements, and to adapt to evolving technologies and changes in market conditions.
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented. In Agile Scrum, the three roles are- product owner, scrum master and team. Product owner identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented in the sprint. Scrum master plans and controls the sprints. The team refers to a technical group that includes business analyst, architects, developers, and software testers who are responsible for completion of the sprint.
    In the agile workflow, product owners come up with product backlog document which has a list of features to be implemented in the sprint, listed based on priority. The sprint starts with planning. The activities to be conducted in the sprint are tracked using sprint backlog document. The daily scrums are the meetings conducted to gather updates on the project. After the sprint, the potentially shippable product is presented to the client by the team. The retrospective meeting is conducted by the team to discuss the improvements to be done in the sprint.
    The team and customer interactions, being responsive to the changes, quick release of the software make the agile most accepted methodology for many projects.

    3. What is a Sprint?
    A sprint (or iteration) is the basic unit of software development in Scrum methodology of SDLC. The sprint is a time boxed effort; that is, it is restricted to a specific duration. The duration is fixed in advance for each sprint and is normally between one week and one month, with two weeks being the most common.
    Each sprint starts with a sprint planning event that aims to define a sprint backlog, identify the work for the sprint, and make an estimated forecast for the sprint goal. Each sprint ends with a sprint review and sprint retrospective that reviews progress to show to stakeholders and identify lessons and improvements for the next sprints.
    Scrum emphasizes working product at the end of the sprint that is really done. This includes that the software has been fully integrated, tested and documented, and is potentially shippable.

    4. What are user stories?
    In software development , a user story is an informal, natural language description of one or more features of a software system. User stories are often written from the perspective of an end user or user of a system. They are often recorded on index cards, on Post-it notes, or in project management software. Depending on the project, user stories may be written by various stakeholders including clients, users, managers or development team members.
    User stories facilitate sense making and communication, that is, they help software teams organize their understanding of the system and its context. User stories are often confused with system requirements. A requirement is a formal description of need; a user story is an informal description of a feature

  62. 1.Sequential Designs follows top-down approach to develop the software, Once started, testing is done upto completion and no additional changes are made to the software lateronce completed. Eg: waterfall model.
    2.Agile Scrum is the iterative, modular approach of SDLC. Software is developed in several increments called sprints. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. Client can add some extra features later in the Agile Scrum mode and prior to its implementation.
    3. Sprint is described as the various incremental levels that are developed in an agile scrum s/w development model. In every sprint few requirements are developed and submit to the client for approval.
    4. The two-line user stories in agile model that describe the features to be implemented.

  63. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?

    Sequential Design – They are the traditional models, with a top down approach. They are used for simple and low budget projects. The models-
    1) Waterfall model
    2) V Model
    Here if a client requests for changes in the requirements or if there are new requirements then we need to start from the beginning. Only difference in waterfall and V model is that in V model testing is done at different levels.(more focus on testing)

    Iterative/incremental model – As the name says, these are iterative models.
    1) Spiral Model – We don’t get complete requirements from the client. As and when we get the requirements we develop the software. It is suitable for safety critical system where there is a high risk of failure. Eg – spacecrafts. In each and every phase there is planning, risk analysis, design & development, evaluation. This type of model involves cost and is time consuming because We need to repeat the spirals.
    2) Agile model – When the requirements are unclear, a new feature needs to be developed, quick release has to be done, when there is a new technology , when there is a new type of software to be developed, agile model is used. If there is a new technology, the developers need support/resource documents which are insufficient, because of this they will face problems which are unpredictable, they will have discussions with the client, IT project team, vendors and so on to find solutions. By doing this they will deviate from the objectives or plan.
    3) Agile scrum – Because of the limitation in agile model – deviation from the objectives , we use agile scrum. Here tracking is done . Tracking can be done by people and by documents.

    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Because of the limitation in agile model – deviation from the objectives , we use agile scrum. Here tracking is done . Tracking can be done by people and by documents.
    In Agile scrum , software is developed in several increments called as sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into potentially Shipable product in 2 or 4 weeks. The two line users describe the features to be implemented.
    In Agile workflow, the product owner who is the client, identifies and prioritizes the features to be implemented and comes up with a product backlog document. The sprint starts with planning. To keep a track of all the activities sprint burndown chart is used. The daily scrum meetings are conducted to gather updates in the project. After the sprint, the potentially shippable product is presented to the client by the technical group who are the developers, architects, QA ( they are responsible for he completion of the sprint). A group of releases ( a group of functionalities) or a single release ( if it is a major functionality ) is done. This is tracked using the release burndown chart. The retrospective meeting is conducting to discuss the improvements to be done in the sprint. Then you have the scrum master who is the project manager or the BA who plans and controls the sprint, is a means of communication and coordination between the product owner and the technical group/ team.

    3. What is a Sprint?
    Each activity or task is called a sprint. If a single feature needs to be implemented many activities have to be done. To keep a track of all these activities, sprint burndown chart is used.

    4. What are user stories?
    User stories are two lines which describe the features to be implemented.

  64. Answer 1. Sequential models such as Waterfall or V-Model rely on intensive periods of collecting and refining requirements for a product before design and development activity can take place. Products developed using these models are intended to be complete when released to customers. Central to the approach is an assumption that by adhering to the requirements captured at the outset, the product will fulfill the wishes of those customers
    This is in contrast with iterative ways of working, with an emphasis on delivering less complex products, often to test customer response before making adjustments. The techniques encourage regular feedback from customers, and rapid response to that feedback; refining ideas and revisiting design and development activities with the intention of delivering products which better reflect what customers want

    Answer 2:In Agile the tasks are divided in time boxes (Small time frame) to deliver specific features for release. it become popular due to its flexibility and adaptability. Scrum is most popular methodology of Agile developed in 1995. It is realistic approach to software development, promotes team work and cross training, functionality can be developed rapidly and can be demonstrated. Resources requirement is limited. Suitable for fixed or changing requirements, Delivers every partial requirements, Good model for environment changes steadily, Minimum rules, documentation easily employed, Enables co current development and delivery within an overall planned context, give flexibility to developers, easy to manage, Little or no planning required.

    Answer 3. A sprint is a set of period time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review. Each sprint has a goal of what is to be built, a design and flexible plan that guide building it, the work and resultant product increment. Sprint is one development cycle in Scrum. Sprint is usually 2-3 weeks depend on project requirement.

    Answer 4. A user story is very high level definition of requirement containing just enough information so that the developer can produce a reasonable estimate of the effort to implement it. User story is a part of Agile development process. Over the course of good Agile project you should expect to have user story examples written by each member.

  65. The sequential design is a top-down approach suitable for small projects. This design doesn’t allow to make any changes in the requirements.
    Iterative design is best suitable for high-risk projects. In this design, the client can add additional requirements and change the existing requirements. The software will be developed in iterative each iteration contains some requirements to develop.
    Incremental design /agile model is a very popular model in recent times. In this model, the software will be developed and shipped to the client in increments. Each increment is called a sprint.
    User stories are two line description of the features to be implemented.

  66. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential design is the top down approach for the development of software,this is for simple and low budget projectsn,we cannot add new requirement e in the mid of projects.An incremental process is one in which software is built and delivered in pieces. Each piece, or increment, represents a complete subset of functionality.
    Iterative model is used for high risk project where there will be constant changes in requirement of the software is done.The software is developed in small increments and tested in each level.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    In the Agile Scrum, software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The user stories describe the features to be implemented.
    3.What is Sprint?
    In product development, a sprint is a set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review. Each sprint begins with a planning meeting. … The duration of a sprint is determined by the scrum master, the team’s facilitator.
    4.What are User stories
    The user story describes the type of user, what they want and why. … An Agile user story is meant to be short, usually fitting on a sticky note or note card.

  67. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    sequential model is top-down approach. in this model software development is done sequentially and we can’t do the requirement changes in middle of the project. it is suitable for simple projects.
    In iterative/incremental model we accomodate frequent changes in the software and we will develop the software in several incremental called sprint.in each sprint we can deliver potentially shippable product to the customer. so that customer no need to wait for long time. quick releases happened in this model.

  68. 1 In Sequential design, the new requirements or changes are not accepted. Water fall, V model
    In Interative,the new changes or requirements are implemented and accepted in each spiral emphasizing the risk analysis.
    2 Agile software development is a group of software development methodology on iterative based on several increments.
    3 In the Agile scrum, software is developed in several increments called sprint.n every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks. The two-line user stories describe the features to be implemented.
    4 user Stories, the project details in which requirements , functions, budget are given by the clients.

  69. 1. What is the difference between sequential design and iterative/incremental design?
    Sequential designs follows all software development steps in order. Reversing the order is not allowed , hence new requirements/ changes are not accepted. Product is released to customer once the whole software is developed as the per client initial requirements. This design is simple and low budget.
    Iterative /Incremental design divided whole product in small parts/ modules to develop software. All SDLC steps are followed for each part/ module individually. New requirements / changes can be added at any time. Product can be released as whole once all modules are ready (spiral model)or in parts (agile model). This design is complex and can be expensive.
    2. What is Agile Scrum?
    Agile Scrum is a methodology in Agile framework where software is developed in several incremental called as a sprint. In every sprint, few requirements are developed into a potentially shippable product in two to four weeks.
    3. What is a Sprint?
    Sprint is one module / spiral/ few requirements which are developed into a potentially shippable product. All SDLC steps are followed in each sprint.
    4. What are user stories?
    User Stories are two-line descriptions of each feature to be implemented in the software.

  70. Sequential design:- is top down process in which changes in requirements or new requirements in the middle of the project is not considered. Iterative/incremental design model is a model where the steps of SDLC are accomplished. Unlike the sequential model, changes or new requirements are considered in the middle while testing is done.
    Agile Scrum:- an iterative model. A set of requirements are considered then testing is done at time.
    Sprint:- the basic development in the Agile Scrum. It is time boxed effort. That is restricted to a specific duration, two to four weeks.
    Users Stories:- is a detailed requirement, containing enough information so that the developers can produce a reasonable estimate of the effort to implement it.

  71. 1.Difference between sequential design and Iterative / incremental design : In sequential design each step of testing is completed before going to next step. Need to have all the requirements before starting the project. Mostly can be used for simple projects with low budget.
    Whereas in Iterative/incremental design works on partial requirements ( client can add or change other requirements or functionalities in the middle of the project ).

    2. Agile Scrum : It is a iterative / incremental type of SDLC model. It is used where it has frequent changes in the requirements. where software is developed in several increments called as a sprint. It has 3 groups : 1. Scrum master 2. Product owner 3. Team.

    3.Sprint : Is a iteration in a SDLC. The sprint starts with planning. The activities to be conducted in the sprint are tracked using sprint backlog document.

    4. User Story : Functionalities / requirements listed or described by client .

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