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What is Cucumber Testing Tool?

Cucumber, which is a popular tool for behavior-driven development (BDD). Cucumber allows you to write test scenarios in a human-readable format, typically known as Gherkin syntax, and then automate those tests. This facilitates collaboration between technical and non-technical team members since scenarios are written in plain language. Developers can then implement the steps of these scenarios to automate testing.

Cucumber supports various programming languages such as Ruby, Java, JavaScript, etc., and integrates with different testing frameworks like Selenium, Capybara, etc., for web applications. In BDD, users (business analysts, product owners) first write scenarios or acceptance tests that describe the behaviour of the system from the customer’s perspective, for review and sign-off by the product owners before developers write their codes. Cucumber testing framework uses BDD. 

What is BDD testing?

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) testing is an agile software development approach that encourages collaboration between technical and non-technical team members to ensure software meets business requirements. BDD focuses on the behavior of the system from the perspective of its stakeholders. In BDD, tests are written in a human-readable language, such as Gherkin syntax, which describes the expected behavior of the system in plain text.

Here’s a basic overview of how BDD testing works:

Collaboration: BDD encourages collaboration among developers, testers, business analysts, and other stakeholders to define and understand the desired behavior of the system.

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Specification by Example: BDD promotes the use of concrete examples to specify the behaviour of the system. These examples are often written in a structured format using Given-When-Then clauses, known as Gherkin syntax.

Gherkin Syntax: Gherkin is a plain-text language with a specific syntax for describing the behaviour of software systems. It uses keywords like Given, When, Then, And, and But to describe the steps of a test scenario.

Test Automation: Once the behavior is defined using Gherkin syntax, automated tests are implemented to verify that the software behaves as expected. These tests are often written using testing frameworks like Cucumber, which can interpret Gherkin syntax and execute tests against the software.

Continuous Feedback: BDD promotes continuous feedback loops by running tests frequently throughout the development process. This helps identify issues early and ensures that the software meets the desired behaviour.

Overall, BDD testing helps teams ensure that software development efforts are aligned with business goals, reduces miscommunication between stakeholders, and promotes a shared understanding of the system’s behaviour.

How BDD works in Cucumber Automation?

Eg: Funds Transfer module in a Net Banking application.

  1. Sufficient balance should exist in source account
  2. Valis destination account info
  3. Fund Transfer should take place if transaction password / security code / security authentication for the transaction entered by user is correct
  4. Fund Transfer is allowed on Bank Holiday
  5. Fund Transfer should take place on a future date as set by the account holder. 

The general tendency of developers is to develop features and write test code later.

To overcome this issue, Cucumber BDD (Behaviour Driven Development), was conceived.

In Cucumber BDD, whatever you write must go into Given-When-Then steps. Lets consider the same example above in BDD. 

Given that a fund transfer module in net banking application has been developed and I am accessing it with proper authentication.

When Amount is transferred when account has sufficient balance

Or I shall transfer on a Bank Holiday

Or I shall transfer on a future date

And destination a/c details are correct

And transaction password/security code/security authentication for the transaction is correct.

And press or click send button. 

Advantages of Cucumber Software

Cucumber is a powerful tool with several advantages for software development teams, especially those practicing Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) or aiming for enhanced collaboration between technical and non-technical stakeholders. Here are some of the key advantages:

Human-Readable Format: Cucumber allows writing test scenarios in a human-readable format using Gherkin syntax, which resembles natural language. This makes it easier for non-technical stakeholders such as business analysts, product owners, and testers to understand and contribute to the testing process.

Improved Collaboration: Cucumber promotes collaboration between different stakeholders involved in the software development process by providing a common language for discussing requirements and testing scenarios. This helps ensure that everyone has a shared understanding of the software’s behavior.

Test Automation: While Cucumber scenarios are written in plain text, they can be automated using step definitions written in programming languages such as Java, Ruby, or JavaScript. This allows for the creation of automated tests that verify the behavior of the software, helping teams to identify and address issues early in the development process.

Reusable Steps: Cucumber encourages the reuse of steps across different scenarios, promoting modularity and reducing duplication in test code. This makes it easier to maintain test suites as the application evolves over time.

Integration with Various Tools: Cucumber integrates seamlessly with a wide range of testing frameworks and tools, such as Selenium WebDriver for web application testing, Appium for mobile application testing, and JUnit or TestNG for test execution and reporting.

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD): Cucumber is well-suited for BDD, which emphasizes collaboration and communication between technical and non-technical stakeholders to define and validate system behavior. Cucumber helps teams to focus on the behavior of the system from the user’s perspective, leading to better-designed software that meets user needs.

Clear Documentation: Cucumber scenarios serve as living documentation for the software’s behavior. By maintaining up-to-date feature files with descriptive scenarios, teams can ensure that the documentation remains in sync with the actual implementation of the software.

Overall, Cucumber offers a range of advantages that can help teams to improve the quality of their software, enhance collaboration, and streamline the testing process.

Cucumber Testing tool focuses on end-user experience

Quick and easy set up and execution

It follows a BDD (Behaviour Driven Development) framework to observe the behaviour of the software’s functionalities.

This approach helps bridge the gap between non-technical stakeholders and developers by enabling collaboration on defining and verifying software requirements. It allows business analysts, developers, testers, etc. to automate functional verification and validation in an easily readable and understandable format (e.g., plain English).

We can use Cucumber along with Watir, Selenium, and Capybara, etc. It also works with many other languages like PHP, Net, Python, Perl, etc.


  1. What is cucumber tool?? 
  2. 2. What are advantages of tool? 
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