QA Tutorials

# BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS

## BLACK BOX TEST DESIGN TECHNIQUE

Boundary value analysis is software test design technique. Due to lack of time and cost considerations it is not possible to perform the testing for each set of test data. We look for an adequate and special way of testing techniques which choose the test cases intelligently. One of the techniques we use is Boundary Value testing.

Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.

Boundary value analysis tests the behaviour of the program at boundaries. When we the check a range of data values after selecting the set of data that lie in the valid partitions. The next step is to check how the program behaves in the invalid partitions. Here the common is checking the range of values. For each range, there are two boundaries lower boundary and upper boundary. They are beginning and end of every valid partition. We should design the program in such a way that each test cases should exercise the program functionality at the boundaries and the values with outside and inside the boundaries. Boundary value analysis is another black box type of technique and it is used to find errors in the boundaries in the input domain and the centre of the input. Finding defects using boundary value analysis is very effective technique and it can be used at all levels of testing.

The equivalence class partition and boundary value analysis test design techniques are always used together to determine test data for testing. :

## Questions:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?

1. Nadeem Arshad says:

1. Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. It is process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. For example, if there was a username requirement for length between 4 and 8 characters, we would test the boundaries at 3, 4, and 5 as well as 7, 8, and 9 characters.

2. Boundary Value Analysis focuses solely on the input values at the boundaries, whereas Equivalence Class Partitioning divides the data into invalid and valid partitions, or classes. BVA is associated with the range of values, while ECP is primarily associated with the type of values.

2. girijavani says:

Boundary value analysis. Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries.
Eg: Gmail User name accepts valid user name and password to login and it accepts minimum 8 characters and maximum 10 characters. Valid range 8 -10, invalid range greater than 10 and less than 8.

What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
The equivalence class partition and boundary value analysis test design techniques are always used together to determine test data for testing used in Black box testing.
Boundary Analysis is used to find errors at extreme points rather than finding those which exists in center. By using Boundary
value there is maximum possibility of finding bugs in minimum time.
Equivalence Partitioning technique we divide test data into different equivalence data classes i.e. ‘Valid’ and ‘Invalid’.

3. aswani says:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a mail.yahoo.com which accepts valid user name and password field to work and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum.

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Boundary Value Analysis BVA is different from equivalence partitioning in that it focuses on “corner cases” or values or in-other words it is used to identify errors at boundaries rather than finding those exist in centre of input domain.Where as, in equivalence partitioning, first, you divide a set of test condition into a partition that can be considered.

4. Soni says:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries.
eg:we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Boundary value analysis tests the behaviour of the program at boundaries. When we the check a range of data values after selecting the set of data that lie in the valid partitions, equivalent partition testing is black box technique whichacnbe applied to all levels testing like unit, integration, system.

5. Suneetha V says:

Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries.
Ex: we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.

6. SD says:

Boundary value analysis is software test design technique. Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. Boundary value analysis tests the behavior of the program at boundaries.Finding defects using boundary value analysis is very effective technique and it can be used at all levels of testing.
EX:- in banking project LOAN AMOUNT is between 1000-9000 so it will check amount test data with boundaries as inputs
1-min1000 to max9000
2-999-9001-will not accepted
3.1001- 8999-accepted
the main difference Boundary Value testing technique is used to identify errors at boundaries (min-max).
Equivalence class partition divides the input data into different equivalence data class. We can use this type of technique, where there is different data accepted in the input field. There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing.

7. Padmaja says:

Boundary value analysis is process of testing between valid and invalid partitions.
For example, an application accepts input as number 1 to 100, then the boundary value analysis is testing with
1. test data with boundaries as inputs 1 and 100
2. test data with values just below the extreme ends 0 and 99
3. test data with values just above the extreme ends 2 and 101
Difference between boundary value analysis and equivalence class partition
Boundary value analysis focuses on data around the boundaries
Equivalence partition focuses on partition of different equivalent data.

8. Kazi+Saima+Ahsan says:

Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.
boundary value analysis tests the behavior of the program at boundaries. When we the check a range of data values after selecting the set of data that lie in the valid partitions. The next step is to check how the program behaves in the invalid partitions. Here the common is checking the range of values. For each range, there are two boundaries lower boundary and upper boundary. They are beginning and end of every valid partition. We should design the program in such a way that each test cases should exercise the program functionality at the boundaries and the values with outside and inside the boundaries.

Finding defects using boundary value analysis is very effective technique and it can be used at all levels of testing.Equivalence partition focuses on partition of different equivalent data.

9. anu says:

BOUNDARY VALUE ANALYSIS
BLACK BOX TEST DESIGN TECHNIQUE

Boundary value analysis is software test design technique Due to lack of time and cost considerations it is not possible to perform the testing for each set of test data.
Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries.

Boundary value analysis tests the behavior of the program at boundaries. When we the check a range of data values after selecting the set of data that lie in the valid partitions. The next step is to check how the program behaves in the invalid partitions.

Difference between boundary and equivalence
-Boundary value analysis focuses on data around the boundaries.
-Equivalence partition focused on partition of different equivalent data.
we divide valid & invalid range of input whereas In BVA we take input boundary value with +1 & -1.

10. Vrinda says:

Boundary value testing is a process of testing the boundary input values neat the minimum and maximum boundaries.
A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition. Eg: If an input field accepts only uppercase and lowercase between 6 and 50 characters, The equivalence partition would be A-Z, a-z and the boundary will be a range between 6 and 50. At the time of testing, it would be cost and time efficient to test a combination of A-Z and a-z with 6 characters and 51 characters.

11. Mehari Haile says:

Boundary value analysis is a software testing technique in which tests are designed to include representatives of boundary values in a range. The idea comes from the boundary. Given that we have a set of test vectors to test the system, a topology can be defined on that set. Those inputs which belonging to the same equivalence class as defined by the equivalence partitioning theory would constitute the basis. Given that the basis sets are neighbors, there would exist a boundary between them. The test vectors on either side of the boundary are called boundary values.
Example ; assume, we have to test a field which accepts age 18_56
minimum boundary value is 18
max 56, valid inputs ; 18,19,55,56
invalid inputs; 17 and 57
a- (min-1) 18_ 1 = 17 invalid
b-(min +1) 18+ 1= 19 valid
c- (max-1) 56- 1= 55 valid
d-(max ) 56 = valid
e-(max+1) 56+ 1= 57 invalid

12. Sruthy Mohan says:

1.What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries.
. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Boundary value analysis is another black box type of technique and it is used to find errors in the boundaries in the input domain and the centre of the input Whereas equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.

13. Bhumika says:

1) Boundary value analysis is software test design technique in which testing is done at the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. It is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries.
Eg: Well Fargo bank account Username Functionality.
Valid Username has 4—8 characters. So using Boundary Value Analysis we check the behaviour of the software at the valid boundaries that is 4,5 ,78 and at invalid boundaries that is 3 and 9.

2) The difference between boundary value analysis testing and equivalence class partition testing is that the former tests data at the boundary whereas the latter divides the entire data into partitions with similar elements and then test a part of each partition..

14. William says:

Boundary value analysis is a testing technique in which the boundaries of input values are tested – In this case the values near the minimum and the maximum are tested to see their behavior. For example, if a banking loan application accepts a minimum of 50,000 and a maximum of 100,000, the test for valid partition will be 50,000 to 100,000. Where the invalid partitions will be less than 50,000 and greater than 100,000.
2. In the difference, boundary values testing focuses on data around the boundary, whereas equivalence partition focuses on partitioning overall data into different attributes and samples drawn from each partition.

15. avani amin says:

1. analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values.
eg:in the company employees accounts which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 5 characters and maximum 8 characters. Valid range 5 -8
, invalid range 4 or less than 4 and invalid range 9 or more than 9

2. .Difference between boundary value analysis and equivalence class partition
Boundary value analysis focuses on data around the boundaries(numeric value)
Equivalence partition focuses on partition of different equivalent data.(all the characters)

16. sujata says:

BVA is testing technique is used for testing the range of the value and field length.EX: 32 characteristic for Password.
The diffrence is BVA is about particular range and length where as ECP is wide range and field length.

17. Monika Sood says:

Boundary value analysis is a type of black box testing design technique which tests the input data based on the different boundaries like minimum, maximum and center. It aims to detect errors using these boundary values. For example, a typical and most commons scenario is when we accept password for a login function. Suppose the password has a condition of accepting between 4-8 character lower case range. The lower boundary will be 4 and 3 and 5 around it. Similarly the upper boundary will be 8 and 7 and 9 around it as the test conditions.

18. Monika Sood says:

Boundary value testing is essentially testing around the minimum and maximum values in a data set whereas equivalence class partition testing is dividing the data set into similar elements where testing an element is representative of the entire class partition.

19. Hema says:

Boundary value analysis is black box type of testing technique which tests the behavior of the program at boundaries.
The difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing:
is that the former tests the data at the boundaries and the latter tests the sample data from each partition.

20. Ramya says:

What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
Boundary value analysis is software test design technique. Due to lack of time and cost considerations it is not possible to perform the testing for each set of test data. We look for an adequate and special way of testing techniques which choose the test cases intelligently. One of the techniques we use is Boundary Value testing.Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values.
Suppose if the username should be alphanumeric lowercase with 4 to 8 characters. The boundary value analysis would be
minimum is 4 PASS
maximum is 8 PASS
minimum-1 is 3 FAIL
maximum-1 is 7 PASS
minimum+1 is 5 PASS
maximum+1 is 9 FAIL
What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Boundary value analysis is different from equivalence partitioning in that it focuses on corner cases or values or in other words it is used to identify errors at boundaries rather than finding those exist in centre of input domain.

21. Emmanuel Acquah says:

Boundary value testing is when test is done in a cumulative approach instead of division because of the cost associated with it. Therefore, testers are to look for areas where it is necessary or needed to be tested. That means testers careful analyze either the minimum range of 9 or the maximum range of 13 characters within the testing system.
The different between the equivalence testing and the boundary testing is that equivalence testing precision testing in many different segments while boundary testing specifically test a particular range because of the high cost associates with testing.

22. sonia says:

Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.

23. Revathi says:

Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting
the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the
maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum
boundaries. for example bank account Username Functionality, Valid Username has 5—9 characters. Valid range 5-9, invalid range
4 or less than 4and invalid range 10 or more than 10. Boundary value analysis focuses on data around the boundaries where as
Equivalence partition analysis focuses on partition of different equivalent data.

24. Dhanya says:

1.Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum.
eg: a condition that values valid only in between 5 -10 ,invalid 10
2.boundary value testing : a condition that values valid only in between 5 -10 ,invalid 10, which means it depends on the limit & cant exceed or go below ,it should be invalid
equivalence partition testing: its a condition that valid depends on the values that are accepted for example: user name that accepts only alphabets a-z ,not numeric ,special characters ,A-Z etc. & password that accept only characters

25. Ronak Patel says:

1. Boundary value analysis is software test design technique. It is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.
2. The difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing is that boundary value testing is in boundary value testing the partitions are set to the minimum, maximum, and just below and above the minimum and maximum. In equivalence partition testing the partitions must be established based on what is being tested and will not always be the same set of partitions.

26. Shakiela Peau Pial says:

1. What is boundary value analysis. Explain with an example.
Answer: Boundary value testing is kind of a black box testing. To save time and cost we follow this technique. Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. Because we always consider most of the defects occur near the boundary.
For example, if one of the input value’s requirement is 9 to 13 character, then valid range will be 9 -13, invalid range will be 8 or less then 8(minimum), invalid range will be 14 or more than 14(maximum)

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Answer: In equivalence Class partition, you divide the input data into partitions. On the other hand, in boundary value analysis you test boundaries of equivalence partitions.

27. Shabana Anjum says:

Boundary value analysis is a technique to test at the boundaries of the input values.
The input values are
Min
Max
Min+1
Max-1
Min-1
Max+1
For example, A tool which works with valid username that is accepting min 9 characters and max 13 characters
Password field accepts min 9 characters and max 13 characters
Valid range is 9-13
Invalid range less than 9
Invalid partition greater than 13
Boundary value analysis is testing at the boundaries between partitions whereas Equivalent class partitioning allows you to divide set of test condition into a partition which should be considered same.

28. Neha G says:

What is boundary value analysis. Explain with an example.
Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries.
Ex: If city’s input value’s requirement is 9 to 12 character. And your try to enter Visakhapatnam(13) will not accept it. also Atlanta will not accept. so if we chance the requirement to 5 to 15 character. will accept both.

What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Boundary value analysis focuses on data around the boundaries and Equivalence partition focuses on partition of different equivalent data.

29. MULU says:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
Boundary value analysis is a software testing technique and a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries.
Example: Suppose condition with customer Name that accept 2-64 character. Invalid range 1or less than 1, Valid range 2- 64, Invalid range 65 or more than 65. The boundary values are minimum 2character and maximum 64 character.

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
*Boundary value analysis is testing at the boundaries between the partitions, on the other hand Equivalent class partition allow to divide set condition into a partition which should be considered as the same.

30. Srimathi says:

Boundary Value Analysis is another Black box testing design technique. It is a process of checking the range of the input data .
Eg: if FSD has username as 4-6 chars.
In BVA the input data for username will be checked between the range of 4-6.
So anything below 4(Min less 1) will fail and anything above 6(Max plus1) will fail. All other values in between will pass.

Difference between Equivalence class partition testing and BVA is in ECP the input data is divided into partitions with similar elements. In BVA the input value is checked between the range for that value.

31. Krishna Patel says:

1. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.

2. Boundary value analysis is software test design technique. It is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing.

32. jacita conger-curran says:

1. boundary value testing is is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. For example, a tool and accepts a minimum of 9 characters and a maximum of 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8, and invalid range 14 or more than 14.
2. the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing is equivalence testing is a technique where the input data is divided into partitions of valid and invalid value, focusing on partitioning difference equivalent data and boundary value testing is simply testing the partitions from equivalence testing, focusing on the minimum and maximum of those partitions.

33. Radhika says:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
Boundary value analysis is a method of testing between the boundaries or extreme ends of the input values. Input values are selected as minimum, just above and below minimum, maximum, just above and below maximum as well as a value within the valid range.
Boundary value analysis will test: 3 (min-1), 4 (min value), 5 (min+1, valid range), 7 (max-1, is within the valid range), 8 (max), 9 (max+1, invalid).

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
Equivalence partition testing divides the data into similar types or groups while boundary analysis testing is done for a range and at the extreme ends of the boundary.

34. Roshan says:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
–> Boundary value analysis is software test design technique in which we test between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values.
For example: Suppose we have a tool which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 5 characters and maximum 9 characters. Valid range 5-9,invalid range (5-1=4 & 9+1=10) .

2.What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
–> Boundary Value Analysis( BVA) is carried to check the range whereas the equivalence partition testing is carried for value check.

35. Jeremy says:

1. What is boundary value analysis explain with an example?
It is not possible to test each and every set of test data, so we try to test intelligently. We look for an adequate and special way of testing techniques which choose the test cases intelligently. One of the techniques we use is Boundary Value testing.
Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14. There is also 2 value and 3 value boundary value analysis. If not stated, then use 2 value partitioning. So for 3 value BVA you would choose the values 8,9,10. Which is the value at the edge of the partition, then minus one and plus one. The next values would be 12, 13, 14. Again the value at the edge of the partition, then minus one and plus one.

2. What is the difference between boundary value testing and equivalence partition testing?
BVA uses values at the edge of each partition, plus, and minust. Whereas ECP uses a value within each partition, both valid and invalid. The equivalence class partition and boundary value analysis test design techniques are always used together to determine test data for testing.

36. mayura K. says:

1.Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries. For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 9 characters and maximum 13 characters. Valid range 9 -13, invalid range 8 or less than 8 and invalid range 14 or more than 14.
2. Boundary value analysis uses values at the edge of each partition, plus, and minust. Whereas Equivalence class partition uses a value within each partition, both valid and invalid. The equivalence class partition and boundary value analysis test design techniques are always used together to determine test data for testing.

37. Ambika Mahajan says:

Boundary value analysis is a process of testing between the extreme ends or boundaries of input values. The basic idea of selecting the boundary testing is selecting the input values at their Minimum, just above the Minimum, a nominal value, just below the maximum, a maximum. Boundary Value analysis is a process of testing the boundary input values near the minimum and maximum boundaries. A boundary is an input or output value on the equivalence partition which includes minimum and maximum of inside and outside boundaries.
For example suppose we have a very important tool at office which accepts valid user name and password field to work on that tool and accepts minimum 8 characters and maximum 12 characters. Valid range 8 -12, invalid range 7 or less than 7 and invalid range 13or more than 13
Difference
Boundary value analysis is testing the boundaries between partitions. It allows us to divide a set of test conditions into a partition that should be considered the same. … The Equivalence partitioning will reduce the number of test cases to a finite list of testable test cases covering maximum possibilities

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