# EQUIVALENCE CLASS PARTITION

## BLACK BOX TEST DESIGN

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived

For example assume that the application accepts a character from A-Z. Valid partitioning is the characters from A-Z is inclusive and invalid partitioning can be a-z, symbols, integers etc. The fundamental concept of this testing comes from equivalence class which intern comes from equivalence relation. A computable function in software system is in effect which is implemented as a algorithm and some implementation in programming language. Considering the concept of vectors, the input test vector given, covers the instructions of that algorithm. This gives the interesting relationship for the input test vectors.

Consider,

a customer name input field accepts 2 to 24 chars.

Valid partition: a-z, A-Z, 2 to 24 chars

Invalid partition: numeric, special char, less than 2 chars, more than 24 chars

Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing. In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same. It divides the input data into different equivalence data class. We can use this type of technique, where there is different data accepted in the input field. There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing. The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

## Questions

1. What is equivalence testing?
2. What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?

### 9 thoughts on “EQUIVALENCE CLASS PARTITION”

1. Nadeem Arshad says:

1. Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements.

2. The limitation entails the fact that you are not testing all the values in the class partition, which may or may not affect test results. In other words, you are not testing all the possible values, as you would in blanket test coverage. Exhaustive testing cannot be achieved as such.

2. girijavani says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions, from which test cases can be derived. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. An advantage of this approach is reduction in the time required for testing software due to lesser number of test cases.
1. What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
This technique is used to reduce an infinite number of test cases to a finite number, while ensuring that the selected test cases, which will cover all possible scenarios.
Example to understand the Equivalence Partitioning:
If one application is accepting input range from 1 to 100, using equivalence class we can divide inputs into the classes, for example, one for valid input and another for invalid input and design one test case from each class.
In this example test cases:
input range between 1 to 100.
invalid data any one value below 1.
invalid any value above 100.

The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

3. aswani says:

What is equivalence testing?
Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning (ECP) is a software testing technique that divides the input data of a software unit into partitions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. In principle, test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once.The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.
What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
In cases where the data ranges or sets involved approach simplicity (Example: 0-10, 11-20, 21-30), and testing all values would be practical, blanket test coverage using all values within and bordering the ranges should be considered. Blanket test coverage can reveal bugs that would not be caught using the equivalence partitioning method, if the software includes sub-partitions which are unknown to the tester. Also, in simplistic cases, the benefit of reducing the number of test values by using equivalence partitioning is diminished, in comparison to cases involving larger ranges (Example: 0-1000, 1001-2000, 2001-3000).

4. Soni says:

1. What is equivalence testing?
Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements.

5. Suneetha V says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
For example assume that the application accepts a character from A-Z. Valid partitioning is the characters from A-Z is inclusive and invalid partitioning can be a-z, symbols, integers etc. The fundamental concept of this testing comes from equivalence class which intern comes from equivalence relation.

6. SD says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived.
In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same.There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

7. Padmaja says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements .The limitations of Equivalence testing is that one condition of the partition may pass but this could also cause the other values to fail. This would be a disadvantage for the tester because when one condition fails, all others will fail as well.

8. Soni says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived. The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

9. Nijashree says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software design technique, which divides the input test data of the applications into partitions with similar elements.
Limitation:
The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one data value from each partition the test case can be derived.

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