QA Tutorials

# EQUIVALENCE CLASS PARTITION

## BLACK BOX TEST DESIGN

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived

For example assume that the application accepts a character from A-Z. Valid partitioning is the characters from A-Z is inclusive and invalid partitioning can be a-z, symbols, integers etc. The fundamental concept of this testing comes from equivalence class which intern comes from equivalence relation. A computable function in software system is in effect which is implemented as a algorithm and some implementation in programming language. Considering the concept of vectors, the input test vector given, covers the instructions of that algorithm. This gives the interesting relationship for the input test vectors.

Consider,

a customer name input field accepts 2 to 24 chars.

Valid partition: a-z, A-Z, 2 to 24 chars

Invalid partition: numeric, special char, less than 2 chars, more than 24 chars

Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing. In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same. It divides the input data into different equivalence data class. We can use this type of technique, where there is different data accepted in the input field. There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing. The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

## Questions

1. What is equivalence testing?
2. What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?

1. Nadeem Arshad says:

1. Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements.

2. The limitation entails the fact that you are not testing all the values in the class partition, which may or may not affect test results. In other words, you are not testing all the possible values, as you would in blanket test coverage. Exhaustive testing cannot be achieved as such.

2. girijavani says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions, from which test cases can be derived. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. An advantage of this approach is reduction in the time required for testing software due to lesser number of test cases.
1. What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
This technique is used to reduce an infinite number of test cases to a finite number, while ensuring that the selected test cases, which will cover all possible scenarios.
Example to understand the Equivalence Partitioning:
If one application is accepting input range from 1 to 100, using equivalence class we can divide inputs into the classes, for example, one for valid input and another for invalid input and design one test case from each class.
In this example test cases:
input range between 1 to 100.
invalid data any one value below 1.
invalid any value above 100.

The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

3. aswani says:

What is equivalence testing?
Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning (ECP) is a software testing technique that divides the input data of a software unit into partitions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. In principle, test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once.The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.
What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
In cases where the data ranges or sets involved approach simplicity (Example: 0-10, 11-20, 21-30), and testing all values would be practical, blanket test coverage using all values within and bordering the ranges should be considered. Blanket test coverage can reveal bugs that would not be caught using the equivalence partitioning method, if the software includes sub-partitions which are unknown to the tester. Also, in simplistic cases, the benefit of reducing the number of test values by using equivalence partitioning is diminished, in comparison to cases involving larger ranges (Example: 0-1000, 1001-2000, 2001-3000).

4. Soni says:

1. What is equivalence testing?
Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements.

5. Suneetha V says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
For example assume that the application accepts a character from A-Z. Valid partitioning is the characters from A-Z is inclusive and invalid partitioning can be a-z, symbols, integers etc. The fundamental concept of this testing comes from equivalence class which intern comes from equivalence relation.

6. SD says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived.
In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same.There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

7. Padmaja says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements .The limitations of Equivalence testing is that one condition of the partition may pass but this could also cause the other values to fail. This would be a disadvantage for the tester because when one condition fails, all others will fail as well.

8. Soni says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived. The hypothesis behind that is, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

9. Nijashree says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software design technique, which divides the input test data of the applications into partitions with similar elements.
Limitation:
The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one data value from each partition the test case can be derived.

10. Kazi+Saima+Ahsan says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived. Consider,

a customer name input field accepts 2 to 24 chars.

Valid partition: a-z, A-Z, 2 to 24 chars

Invalid partition: numeric, special char, less than 2 chars, more than 24 chars

Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing. In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same. It divides the input data into different equivalence data class.
The limitation is, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

11. anu says:

Equivalence Testing

Equivalence testing is a types of software testing design techniques which divide the input data test data of the application into the partition of similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing.
equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design
technique which can be applied to all levels of testing. In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same. It divides the input data into different equivalence data class. We can use this type of technique, where there is different data accepted in the input field.
Limitation – The limitation of equivalence testing technique derives from the fact that only a part of the entire partition is tested and a defect in an untested part may be undetected.

12. Bhumika says:

1) Equivalence Class Partition is a type of Software Testing Design Technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. Here, the test case is derived using input data from each partition. This testing is based on the assumption that if one input data of a partition passes then all other values of the partition will pass too. Likewise if one input data fails then all other will also fail.

2) The Limitation of the Equivalence Class Testing is that only a part of the partition is tested and the defects in the remaining untested part goes undetected.

13. Vrinda says:

Equivalence testing is a type of software testing that divides input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is that testing one data value is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
The limitations of Equivalance testing are that it makes an assumption that if one condition of partition passes, then all other values will pass. This may leave some defects undetected.

14. Mehari Haile says:

Equivalence class partition is a software testing technique which divides the input data of the software unit in to portions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived . In principle , test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once . this test technique tries to define test cases that uncover classes of errors, reducing the total number of test cases that must be developed

15. Mehari Haile says:

Equivalence class testing limits are testers grouping and partition the test input data for example consider a software application, which takes not less than two digit number , and not more than 3 digit number ,for its execution .Given below is the huge amount of input to test and validate the functioning of the software application 1,2,3 1498,1500.
Now as per the requirement specifications inputs are grouped together t form some classes. Now instead of testing 1500 inputs, we have formed 4 classes and are accordingly dividing the inputs to category of valid and invalid inputs, which reduces the work of the test case preparation.
A single element, chooses from each class, as test input, represent the whole class .
example number 121 is used from the class ” three digit numbers” as the test input. on using 121 , it was found that software application functions properly and passes the test.

16. Sruthy Mohan says:

1.What is equivalence testing?
Equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing. In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same. It divides the input data into different equivalence data class. We can use this type of technique, where there is different data accepted in the input field. There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing

2.What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
It does not consider the conditions for boundary value. The identification of equivalence classes relies heavily on the expertise of testers. Testers might assume that the output for all input data set are correct, which can become a great hurdle in testing

17. William says:

1. Equivalence testing is a technique in testing in which the input data is divided or partition into different equivalence data class, in which at least one data is sampled from each partition for testing, for which the result is used for generalization of the entire data set.
2. Limitations: The limitations are that, this type of testing does not in reality test every part of the data which might lead to flaws or inaccuracy. Also, the method might leads to inconsistencies in testing as for instance, one condition of partition used as a benchmark for failure or success does not give a clear indication of the success or failure of the test.

18. avani amin says:

1. which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements.
eg: a customer name input field accepts 2 to 24 chars.
Valid partition: a-z, A-Z, 2 to 24 chars
Invalid partition: numeric, special char, less than 2 chars, more than 24 chars

2. limitation of ecp: one condition of the partition may pass but this could also cause the other values to fail. This would be a disadvantage for the tester because when one condition fails, all others will fail as well.

19. sujata says:

ECP is used as technique to test wide range of value and field length.EX: loan and credit scoring (Banking).
In cases where the data ranges or sets involved approach simplicity (Example: 0-10, 11-20, 21-30), and testing all values would be practical, blanket test coverage using all values within and bordering the ranges should be considered. Blanket test coverage can reveal bugs that would not be caught using the equivalence partitioning method, if the software includes sub-partitions which are unknown to the tester. Also, in simplistic cases, the benefit of reducing the number of test values by using equivalence partitioning is diminished, in comparison to cases involving larger ranges (Example: 0-1000, 1001-2000, 2001-3000).

20. akansha says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing in which input test data will divide into partitions with similar elements.in which one data from each partision should be tested and generalised result.
example if you want to oder piza it only allow number between 6 to 10
so in equivalent class partision we will divde in partision from 0- 5,6-10,11-14
0-5 pick one number should be invalid
6-10 pick one number valid
11-14 pick one number is invalid
2 limitation:equivalent calss partiotion testing is hypoththetic testing. if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. same if one condition fails all others will fail.

21. Shivani Agrawal says:

1) Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to the testing of entire partition. Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all levels of testing. We can use this type of technique, where there is different data accepted in the input field. There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing.
2) This type of technique can be used where there is different data accepted in the input field. In this type of testing if one condition of partition passes, all others value will pass. Likewise if one condition fails, all others will fail.

22. Monika Sood says:

It’s a black box testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements.
The limitation of Equivalance testing are:
It doesn’t consider the conditions for boundary value.
The identification of the equivalance class relies heavily on tester’s knowledge.

23. Hema says:

Equivalence class partition is a software testing design technique wherein test data with similar elements is divided into partitions, so testing of one data value represents the entire partition -this is the assumption.
Limitation of equivalence testing is that only a part of the data is tested meaning the untested part may be defective.

24. REKHA says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived.
In this technique, we will divide a series of test condition into partition which can be considered as the same.There are number of test conditions we use equivalence partition test, divide all the test cases and from that we choose any one value from each partition in testing, if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

25. Emmanuel Acquah says:

Equivalence testing is a “software techniques which divides input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements” This means that, by testing a particular software with this techniques gives one a greater advantage of separating and narrowing down to make sure that every aspect of the software is checked and tested for any possible defects.
The limitation of equivalence testing is that, when one value fails all the testing will fail as well because it is a systematic approach in nature. Therefore, one has to make sure that, each aspect of the testing has to be done thoughtfully in other to move into another testing

26. Ramya says:

What is equivalence testing?
Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived.
What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
It does not consider the conditions for boundary value. The identification of equivalence classes relies heavily on the expertise of testers. Testers might assume that the output for all input data set are correct, which can become a great hurdle in testing.

27. Sunil Gondi says:

What is equivalence testing?
–Its a software testing to observe data stats and it partition with similar elements.

What are the limitations of Equivalence testing?
–The limitations are it will detects only the partition and the rest will be undetected.

28. sonia says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. Generally equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to all level of testing.

The limitiations of equivalence testing is if one condition of partition passes all other values will pass, likewise if one condition fails, all others will fail.

29. Revathi says:

Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into
partitions with similar elements. Equivalence class partition testing is a black box testing design technique which can be applied to
all levels of testing. The limitations of Equivalence testing if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one
condition fails, all others will fail.

30. Dhanya says:

1.Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of the application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition. At least one equivalent data from each partition, the test case can be derived.
2. the limitation of equivalence testing is , if one condition of partition pass all others value will pass. Likewise, if one condition fails, all others will fail.

31. Ronak Patel says:

1. Equivalence class partition is a type of software testing design technique which divides the input test data of an application into partitions with similar elements. The assumption is testing one data value from each partition is equivalent to testing the entire partition.
2. The limitations of equivalence testing are that it only tests one value from each partition, assuming that all data values from the partition will act in the same manner as the one data value being tested. In actuality, data values in the same partition could potentially act in a different manner. Also partition must be divided appropriately, which if not done properly could result in inaccurate testing results.

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