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INTEGRATION TESTING

WHITE BOX TESTING

The two types of testing Integration testing can be either a component integration testing or system integration testing. In this article, component integration testing is explained.

INTEGRATION TESTING:

Integration testing is a form of putting together all the components (programs or units) of a application which are unit tested and all other components that make for the whole system. The  different modules are initegrated together and their behaviour  is tested accordingly. This type of testing increases the reliability of the software and performance among the modules which are integrated. For example we have to test the working of a audio application software in connection with the speaker that is unit testing but when you want to combine with Bluetooth and headphone application is integration testing. There are 3 types of testing approach in this. They are:

Big bang approach:

In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them.

Top down approach:

This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested. Then the low level modules are joined together to test the whole system sometimes a dummy module is used to test if any one module is not ready for integration.

Bottom up approach:

This testing is reciprocate of the top down approach. Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behaviour other modules. Even here dummy variables or the modules are used to test if the module is not ready for the integration.

The Integration testing is performed by the developers to test the integration between the programs of the software using the development tools. The defects like inconsistent data flow, interface mismatch, inconsistent control flow, failures in communication can be identified using the integration testing. It is a white box testing type.

Check your understanding: 

1. Write the examples of the scenarios/ software for each of above different types of testing.

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  1. 1. Ans. : The examples of the scenarios/software for each of above different types of testing:
     Integration Testing: For example the testing done to combine with Bluetooth & headphone application.
     Unit Testing: Unit testing is done to test the working of a audio application software in connection with the speaker.
     White Box Testing: This testing is done to identified the defects like inconsistent data flow, interface mismatch, inconsistent control flow, failures in communication.

  2. The scenarios/ software for each of above different types of testing: eg: NET BANKING
    Big Bang: We need to test entire Bank Application with all the developed modules.
    Top down approach: In Top down approach , the high level modules are test first like Account summary, Bill Payment ,Transfer/send ,Special offer & deals then low level modules (login , profile &setting) are tested.
    Botton up Approach :In Botton up approach ,low level modules are tested first like login, profile &setting
    and then high level models(Account summary, Bill Payment ,Transfer/send ,Special offer & deals) are tested.Then they both are integrated & tested together to study the behaviour other modules.

  3. Bigbang Approach : for Example on Wells Fargo home page if You click on location, It should show find wells fargo location and map of USA. IF you are looking for specific Location depedening upon criteria Like ATM or drive up bank ,24 hour bank, safe deposit box service ,foreign currency exchange than you should be able to view only particular locations ,so integration of this small tasks falls under bigbang approach .
    Top to Bottom : In this Approach high level modules are integrated first like Sign On, Morgagr Loans, Career ,Online Banking ,Small Business and then integration of small modues like Home Lending Rate & Payment Calculator, buy home, home improvement under Mortgage loan is going to get integrated.
    Bottoms up : In this approach it is opposite to Top to bottom ,small modules like payment calsulator ,buy home tab ,home improvement all those small components under morgage loans are tested first then it gets integrated with other branches like career , Online banking , Sign on .

  4. Integrated testing – different modules are integrated together to test the behaviour of the software.
    eg: online shopping site in which we shop in one site and we will pay using pay pal. here the unit test will be done in each module then all modules are integrated to test the behaviour of the software.
    Big Bang approach: small components or modules are tested first then they are integrated together to test the interface between them.
    eg: online internet banking in which fund transfer, bill payment, account summary etc all the functions are unit tested first and then combined together in the banking site

  5. The examples of scenarios software for each of above different types of testing:
    Big bang approach: a small modules are tested first and then they are combined together. Example of testing a loan application, online banking…
    Top down approach: testing is done from top to bottom and then the low modules are joined to test the whole system. Example of the The add to cart…..
    Bottom approach: this testing is performed to test the integration between the programs of the software using the development tools. example: bank accounts, carts, sales.

  6. Big bang approach: All modules or components are integrated simultaneously after which everything tested as a whole.
    eg: Suppose an application has 3 modules say ‘Login page’, ‘Mail box’ and ‘Delete mails’. All the three modules are integrated simultaneously and then the testing is performed.
    Top down approach: Testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested first and then the low level modules then joined together to test the whole system. Sometimes a dummy module also called as ‘Stubs’ is used to test if any 1 module is not ready for integration.
    eg: Suppose we have 3 modules 1,2 and 3 and are available for integration. whereas, we also have sub modules which are still under development and cannot be integrated at this point of time. Hence, Stubs are used to test the modules. So, Firstly main modules 1, 2 and 3 are tested and then the Stubs.
    Bottom top approach: This is reciprocate of top down aproach. First low level modules are tested then high level modules are tested and then both are combined and tested together. Here also a dummy module is used.
    eg: Here, sub modules are tested first and then the main modules. If the main module is not developed a dummy module called ‘Drivers’ is used to stimulate the main module.

  7. Integration Testing : This Type of testing is done by developers . Different modules of an application are integrated together and their behavior is tested accordingly. This type of testing increases the reliability of the software . Defects like inconsistent data flow and interface framework errors can be Identified . There are 3 types of Integration Testing .
    1.) Bing Bang Approach : The individual modules are not integrated until all the modules are ready.
    2.) Top-Down Approach :Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules .Stubs are used as temporary module if a module is not ready for Integration Testing.
    3.) Bottom Up Approach : Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules. Drivers are used as a temporary module .
    4.) Hybrid Integration :It is the combination of both Top-down and Bottom-up approaches.

  8. bigbang testing is when small components or modules are tested first then all units are linked at once for testing for a complete system. Top-down testing, is testing from high level modules first then down to the low level modules and finally integrating the low level modules to a high level to ensure the software is working or behaving as expected. Bottom-up testing is done from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first then the highest level then integrating the high level to the low level to test a a whole.

  9. Integration testing:it is a form of putting together all components of application which are unit tested and all other components that make for the whole system.There are 3 testing approach in this.
    Big bang approach:In this small components are tested first and then they are combined together to test the interface between them.
    Top down approach:In this High level modules are tested then low level modules are tested.then low level modules are join together to test the whole system.
    Bottom up approach:In this low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested.Both Top down and Bottom up Approach both use dummy module to test if the module is not ready for the integration.

  10. Consider an online banking application:
    Big Bang approach: each module is tested individually and then combined together and tested as a complete system.
    Eg: account summary, fund transfer etc are tested first then all together are tested to form complete application.
    Top down approach: high level modules were tested first then low level modules are tested and then both are integrated together to test complet system.
    Eg: high level modules like bill pay, fund transfer are tested first and then low level modules like sign in , account settings are tested.
    Bottom up approach: low level modules are tested and then high level modules are tested and integrated together and tested for complete system.

  11. In Big Bang Approach, all components/units are first tested individually and then tested together as a single system.
    In Top-Down Approach, test all the units/components from the top layer first, then integrated the components with next layer down. This process would repeat until all layers are integrated and tested together. Eg: gmail application: test login functionality from the top layer then integrated with Mailbox from next down layer, and then compose mail and so on.
    In the Bottom-Up Approach, first test each component of the bottom layer and then integrate them with components of the next layer up. This is repeated until all components from all layers are integrated.

  12. In the refrigerator testing for making of cubed ice is like unit testing and then testing the features like cubed ice along with crushed ice , the lock and unlock feature of the ice maker together is then called Integration testing.
    In big bang integration testing approach, individual modules are integrated until all the modules are ready, and all or most units are combined and tested in one go.
    In top down approach, testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested.
    Bottom up approach in this testing Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested.
    The Integration testing is performed by the developers to test the integration between the programs of the software using the development tools. The defects like inconsistent data flow, interface mismatch, inconsistent control flow, failures in communication can be identified using the integration testing is called white box testing.

  13. Example: Adobe Photoshop
    Big bang approach- All the individual features of the software are tested first before the software as a whole is tested
    Top Down approach-Major tools like layer, dodge tool, pen tool, blur tool, etc are tested first and then small features like open, save, view , etc are tested.
    Bottom Up approach-In this type all the small features are tested first and then the major tools are tested.

  14. Integration testing is a form of putting together all the components (programs or units) of a application which are unit tested and all other components that make for the whole system.
    Big Bang approach: small components or modules are tested first before the software as a whole is tested.
    Top down approach: Testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested.
    Bottom up approach: In this testing Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested.

  15. Integration Testing includes Big bang approach,Top Down approach and Bottom up approach ,
    If we take example of a retail software, it includes POS system, Ware house management system, Payment receiving,Sales person data.
    In Big bang approach testing components including small components and modules are combined together and tested but first these components are tested separately In Top down approach , higher level components are tested first and then lower level components are tested.
    In Bottom up approach, lower level components will be tested first and the higher lever eg. Payment links in the bank will be tested first and POS system will be tested later.

  16. a. Big bang approach: This approach tests all the small modules like mini statement, deposit, withdraw, view statement etc. and then combined together as system to test.
    b. Top down approach: this approach tests all the high-level modules like, deposit, withdraw, transfer etc. and then the low-level modules are tested. If any of the higher modules are not ready for test then u can use the dummy modules instead are called stubs for testing.
    c. Bottom up approach: This is opposite of top down approach. this approach tests all the Lower-level modules first and then the Higher-level modules are tested. If any of the Lower modules are not ready for test then u can use the dummy modules instead are called Drivers for testing.

  17. Integration Testing is in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. I t occurs after unit testing and before validation testing. There are 3 types of approaches in integration testing.
    Big bang approach : Most of the beveloped modules are coupled together to form a complete software system or major part of the and then used for integration testing.
    Top down approach : The testing is done top to bottom. First High level modules are tested and then low level module are tested.
    Bottom Up approach: In this approach Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested . Then they both are integrated and tested together.

  18. Example of a Telecommunication site: Verizon Wireless
    Big Bang Integration testing approach: modules or small components sus as “about us, News, Careers, Brochures and more” are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them.
    Top Down Integration testing approach: High level modules are tested first for example, “search, Phones, Plan, Sign In” then low level modules tested such as “Smartphones, Basic Phone, Trade in Phone. Then the low-level modules are joined together to test the whole system
    Bottom Up Integration testing approach: In this scenario, Low level modules are tested first, ie Smartphones, Basic Phone, Trade in Phone, and then high-level modules, ie search, Phones, Plan, Sign In are tested. Then they both levels modules are integrated and tested together to study the behavior of other modules.

  19. INTEGRATION TESTING: It is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested as a group. There are 3 types of testing approach in this.
    They are:
    Big bang approach: In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined to test the interface between them.
    Ex: if you consider a Gmail application, in big bang approach we will test inbox, sent, trash etc individually, and combined to test the interface between them.
    Top down approach: High level modules are tested, and then low-level modules tested. Then the low-level modules are joined together to test the whole system.
    Bottom up approach; Low level modules are tested first, and then high-level modules are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behavior other modules.

  20. Once the the units of application are tested individually, all units are put together and tested for whole application
    which is called Integration testing. Integration testing can be done in three different ways:
    Big bang approach: High and low level components of application are randomly combined together to do integration testing.
    Top down approach: High level modules are tested first, second low level tested then combined to do integration testing.
    Bottom up approach: Low level modules are tested first, second high level tested then combined to do integration testing.

  21. In Integration testing there are three types:
    1- Big bang approach: online, account sumary, fund transfer and more.
    2- Top to bottom approach: online banking, test also the major comportment and the minor comportment such as search, check out .
    3- Bottom up approach: tests the minor componements of the software such as gift card, sale, orders, payments.

  22. An online store such as Aliexpress.com can be used as an example for the three types of integration testing:
    Big bang approach: All different links or components such as ‘Cart’, Wish List, Sign in, Categories are created and integrated together and then they will be tested.
    Top-down approach: High level or main modules (eg. links, sign in, etc) are tested then low level or sub-modules will be testing. STUBs are used for this approach to simulate the submodules.
    Bottom-up approach: Testing is done from sub modules to main modules and if the main module is not developed a temporary program (DRIVERS) is used to simulate the main module.

  23. 1. Write the examples of the scenarios/ software for each of above different types of testing
    Eg. Online Banking sysytem
    Big bang Approach-In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them.
    Eg. In a fund transfer module each units debit and credit accounts can be tested separately ,then test the interface between the two accounts to check whether the function is working properly
    Top down Approach -This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested
    Eg . Again in an Online Banking system High level modules like Fund Transfer , Mortgage Calculator , Account Summary can be tested , and then debit and credit on accounts , interest calculation etc can be tested
    Bottom Up Approach-Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behaviour other modules.
    Eg. First the low level modules like updating account balance , calculating interest etc are tested then high level modules like fund transfer , mortgage calculator etc are tested

  24. Integration testing is a form of putting together all the components (programs or units) of a application which are unit tested and all other components that make for the whole system.
    Big Bang is an approach to Integration Testing where all or most of the units are combined together and tested at one go. This approach is taken when the testing team receives the entire software in a bundle. the former tests only the interactions between the units while the latter tests the entire system.
    Top Down is an approach to Integration Testing where top-level units are tested first and lower level units are tested step by step after that.
    Bottom Up is an approach to Integration Testing where bottom level units are tested first and upper-level units step by step after that. T

  25. Integration Testing : This Type of testing is done by developers . Different modules of an application are integrated together and their behavior is tested accordingly. This type of testing increases the reliability of the software . Defects like inconsistent data flow and interface framework errors can be Identified . There are 3 types of Integration Testing .
    1.) Bing Bang Approach : The individual modules are not integrated until all the modules are ready.
    2.) Top-Down Approach :Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules .Stubs are used as temporary module if a module is not ready for Integration Testing.
    3.) Bottom Up Approach : Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules. Drivers are used as a temporary module .
    4.) Hybrid Integration :It is the combination of both Top-down and Bottom-up approaches.

  26. Integration testing: In this testing,we mainly focus on interface/data flow between the modules rather than unit testing
    Big bang approach: Here all the modules will be integrated once and then tested ,so all the modules should designed before testing
    Top-down approach: Here higher priority module will be tested first followed by low priority module.Here we use many stubs .for example in banking project , with out sign in ,we cant go to other module
    Bottom- up approach : Here low level module is tested with high level module,until all the modules are tested.Here we use drivers
    Advantage : we can use dummy modules,rather than waiting for all the modules to be developed ,

  27. Take an example Quick books software.
    Quick books will have different sections Ex: Vendor mgt, Payments, Audit,
    Each section for ex vendor mgt will call lover modules to get data and process data.

    In Big Bang approach test the all the flows in Quick books through the user interface.

    Top Down approach: we will test the vendor mgt first (like add new vendor or delete vendor) and test the lower modules.

    Bottom Up approach: Test low level components first.

  28. The Integration testing is performed by the developers to test the integration between the programs of the software using the development tools.
    The scenario for integration testing is Online Banking.

    Big bang approach:
    In big bang approach all modules like login, fund transfer, bill payment, account summary etc are unit tested individually and integrated. The entire application is tested after integration.

    Top down approach:
    This testing is done from top to bottom.
    In top down approach high level modules like fund transfer, product and services, chequing , savings are tested and low level modules like message alert, order new cheque book, print are tested. Then the low level modules are joined together to test the whole system.

    Bottom up approach:
    This testing is reciprocate of the top down approach
    Low level modules like message alert, order new cheque book, print, nick name accounts are tested first and then high level modules fund transfer , pay biils, chequing , savings are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behaviour other modules

  29. Reading Assignment to be submitted by 3-28-2019
    Integration Testing:
    This type of testing is essentially putting together all the different modules/components of a software that are unit tested and then testing the whole unit.
    Example: Hot mail
    Pre-condition- the client must be registered with hot mail and must possess a hot mail address.
    Test: The programmer will put together the log in function, the open e mail, the delete, the forward, the spam and the mark as read functions. Then the whole unit is then tested for functionality, inter phase capability etc.
    Big Bang Testing:
    All the modules are individually tested and then put together before being tested as a unit to test the interface between them.
    For example, the hot mail. The different modules such as log in, log out, forward, delete, spam and so on are individually tested. Then they are put together and the interface relationship is then tested.
    Top down approach
    In this type of testing, the big modules are tested, then the lesser modules are joined o them and the whole component I tested as a unit to ascertain the functionality of the modules and the relationship between the interface. Sometimes, a dummy module is used if a module is not yet ready.
    For example-hot mail
    The log in module is tested. Then the forward, module and so on are added before a full unit test is done. If any one of the lesser modules is not ready, a dummy is used.
    Bottom up approach
    This is the opposite of the Top down testing. The low-level modules are tested after which these are integrated to the high level models and the whole unit is then tested. If any of the high-level module is not ready, a dummy is used.
    For example-hot mail.
    The forward, delete, and trash modules etc. are first tested. These are then integrated with the log on module and the whole unit is then tested.

  30. In integration testing, the interfacing between the modules inter-connected with each other are tested. Eg: Gmail, shopping cart
    Big Bang Approach: small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them. Fund Transfer etc.
    Top down approach: This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested. Then the low level modules are joined together to test the whole system In this approach,
    Bottom up approach: testing takes place from bottom to top, i.e., modules at bottom layer are integrated and tested first and then sequentially other modules are integrated as we move up

  31. Integration testing is the testing carried out when all the units are put together to form the system as a whole. There are different approaches to integration testing.
    – Big Bang testing. Here all the parts of the application are put together in one shot and the system behavior is tested. This may work for small projects, where there are only a few modules and puitting them together will be easy. However in large systems, this type of testing causes the following issues : a) waiting until all the modules are developed. b) introducing multiple interfaces simultaneously, so that its difficult to identify point of failure. some parts may not be adequate;y tested.

    – Incremental testing. In this case, few of the modules are put together and placeholders are used for modules that are not yet ready. There are 2 types of incremental testing: a) Top-down b) Bottom-up

    a) Top down approach: Here the testing is conducted from the main module to sub module. Placeholders may be used when sub modules are not ready, placeholders for sub-modules are called stubs. Stubs accept input and provide hard coded output as per specification. A good example off stub would be a print function, which would provide hard coded output.

    Advantage: the major module will be tested thoroughly
    disadvantage: stub programs should be developed. actual sub-module may have I/O issues. sub-module may be more complicated than the stub.

    b) Bottom-up approach: Here the sub modules are tested and the main module is simulated using Drivers. Drivers are code that provide input to other modules. Good example of a driver would be login module, which provides the username which will be used in all sub-modules.
    Advantage: sub modules are tested thoroughly, advantageous iff more functionality is within the sub modules. test conditions are easier to create, test results are easily observed.
    Disadvantages: Driver modules must be developed. Interface is not really tested until the actual module is available. Also testing of the major module is deferred, so any issues at that point might be more critical.

  32. Write the examples of the scenarios/ software for each of above different types of testing.

    Big Bang approach – All the hardware and software components are integrated and tested as one system.
    Example:Suppose we have 4 modules from A to D. All the 4 modules are integrated simultaneously and tested.

    Top Down Approach- This type is Testing is done from top to bottom. First the high level modules are tested first and then low level modules are tested. The low level modules are joined together to test the integration and sometimes a dummy module is used if any one module is not ready for integration. Dummy module is called the stub.
    Example: Login functionality is first tested -> inbox ->compose mail -> attach files

    Bottom Up Approach – It is a reciprocate of too down approach. Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested. Then both the integration is tested to see the behavior. Even here dummy module is used if any one module is not ready for integration. Here the dummy module is used is called the driver.
    Example can be house construction

  33. Examples of the three types of component integration testing, Big Bang Approach, Top Down Approach
    Bottom Up Approach would be:

    Scenario: ATM software is being developed. There are three modules 1) transaction request from the customer 2) ATM validates transaction request. 3) ATM sends request to the Bank and receives response.

    Big Bang Approach – In the Big Bang Approach, each program would be tested individually, then the pgms would be tested together to test the Interface between them. The testing would be: the client enters a transaction request into the ATM, the ATM would send the request to the Bank. The Bank would send a response to the ATM for the customer’s request. The ATM would act upon the Bank response and either perform the customer’s request or deny the request.

    Top Down Approach – In the Top Down Approach, the high level programs would be tested, then the lower level pgms would be tested. For the component integration test, if the lower level pgms were not ready yet, dummy modules would be used in their place. In the ATM scenario, the ATM software would be the high level pgm(s) and would be the focus of the testing. The low level pgms might be the customer transaction request and interfacing with the Bank.

    Bottom Up Approach – In the Bottom Up Approach, the lower level programs would be tested, then the higher level modules would be tested. For the component integration test, if the higher level pgms were not ready yet, dummy modules would be used in their place. In the ATM scenario, the lower level pgms such as the Customer entering the transaction request and the ATM’s interfacing with the Bank would be the focus of the testing.

  34. Examples of the scenarios/software for different types of testing:
    Big Bang Approach:
    Function of software is tested individually like text box, search, link, buttons etc. and tested again by combining all functions.
    Top Down Approach:
    In this approach, high level testing is performed first like login, payments, transfers etc and low level testing like text box validation is performed second.
    Bottom Up Approach:
    In this approach, low level testing like text box validation is performed first and high level testing is performed second like login, payments, transfers etc.

  35. Scenario for integration testing could be social media like Facebook.
    1. In Big Bang Approach, small or modules like people search, friendship request, friendship notifications, are parts of the small components or modules which are tested first. Then they are combined together to test the interface between them.
    2. In the Top Down Approach, the high level modules like the accounts username, passwords, videos, audio, profile and other pictures upload are considered.
    3. In the Bottom Up Approach, the low modules are then tested first before the high modules are tested.

  36. Integration testing is white box testing, done by developer.
    In Integration testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.
    There are 3 types of testing approach.

    1) Big bang Approach-In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test
    the interface between them. Eg: account summary, fund transfer etc are tested first then all together are tested to form complete application.

    2) Top down Approach -This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested
    e.g. in an Online Banking system High level modules like Fund Transfer , Mortgage Calculator can be tested first
    and then accounts , interest calculation, sign in etc can be tested

    3) Bottom Up Approach-Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested.
    Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behavior other modules.
    e.g. First the low level modules like account balance , calculating interest etc are tested then high level modules
    like fund transfer , mortgage calculator etc are tested.

  37. Bing Bang Approach : The individual modules are not integrated until all the modules are ready.Eg: account summary, fund transfer
    Top-Down Approach :Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules. eg bill pay, fund transfer ,deposit.
    Bottom up approach: Low level modules are tested first, second high level tested then combined to do integration testing.eg account, search, department, orders.

  38. Facebook mobile app

    Big bang approach: small components or functionalities such login, live video, photo, check in, market place, messenger, and etc. All these different functionalities are being tested and then combined together to test the interface between them.

    Top down approach: in this approach, the high level modules are being tested then the low level modules. After both modules are tested, they are combined together to check the whole system.

    Bottom up approach: this approach is the opposite of the top down approach. Where we started with low level modules and then the high level. Then they are combined or integrated to see their behavior.

    Integration is a type of white box testing and is done by developers.

  39. Integration testing lets consider the example YouTube.
    Here lot of small or individual modules are tested and integrated together according to the order of importance )most visited or used).
    Playlists, history, watch later, liked videos, ,downloading and playing existing content and uploading and posting original content, user’s home page, e.g. search bar, create video, YouTube apps, messages, notifications, profile settings, trending, subscriptions, help, and feedback, etc are some of the Individual functions / modules.

    In Big bang approach, the modules tested individually and then combined to test the interface between them are playlists, history, watch later, liked videos, etc would be. For example, relevant suggested video content should be based on the user’s previous viewing history and previously “liked” content.

    .

    In Top down approach, high level modules such as downloading and playing existing content and uploading and posting original content, are tested first followed by low level modules like, editing titles, descriptions, keywords and privacy settings. After that high and low are integrated together to test full functionality.

    In Bottom up approach, low level modules such as, links to different functions on the user’s home page, e.g. search bar, create video, YouTube apps, messages, notifications, profile settings, trending, subscriptions, help, and feedback are tested first and then the high level modules like uploading, downloading, playback, writing and sending messages, editing profile details, etc.

  40. Examples of the scenarios/ software for Integration testing,Big Bang approach, Top down approach and Bottom up approach. :

    Integration testing: In this type of testing, individual models or units are tested during the Unit testing and then combined or brought together. For example: in a gmail application, if we need to test Login page ,Inbox or Delete Mails, we would not be testing each of these seperately , but are going to find out the communication between the modules as in how is the login page linked to Inbox and how is the inbox mail page linked to delete mails module.

    Big Bang Approach:Small components or modules are tested first before the software as a whole is tested.Example Fund transfer online from one account to another.
    Top down approach: This kind of testing is basically where High level modules are tested then low level modules are tested. Then low level modules are joined together to test the whole system .Example: Lets take a simple gmail application: here we test the login functionality which forms the top layer then integrate it with mailbox from next layer, and then compose mail etc.
    Bottom up approach: This is the reverse of the top down approach, here the low levels are tested first then the higher levels are tested. Drivers are used in this kind of testing.For example cameras. or other small units then the main master unit.

  41. Integration testing is a form of putting together all the components (programs or units) of a application which are unit tested and all other components that make for the whole system. The different modules are integrated together and their behavior is tested accordingly. This type of testing increases the reliability of the software and performance among the modules which are integrated. For example we have to test the working of a audio application software in connection with the speaker that is unit testing but when you want to combine with Bluetooth and headphone application is integration testing. There are 3 types of testing approach in this. They are:

    Big bang approach:
    In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them.

    Top down approach:
    This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested. Then the low level modules are joined together to test the whole system sometimes a dummy module is used to test if any one module is not ready for integration.

    Bottom up approach:
    This testing is reciprocate of the top down approach. Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behaviour other modules. Even here dummy variables or the modules are used to test if the module is not ready for the integration.

    The Integration testing is performed by the developers to test the integration
    Example Integration Test Cases for the following scenario: Application has 3 modules say ‘Login Page’, ‘Mailbox’ and ‘Delete emails’ and each of them is integrated logically.

    Here do not concentrate much on the Login Page testing as it’s already been done in Unit Testing. But check how it’s linked to the Mail Box Page.
    Similarly Mail Box: Check its integration to the Delete Mails Module.

  42. Integration Testing- Individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. The main goal of this testing is to test the interfaces between the units/modules.
    * Big Bang Integration Testing
    In Big Bang integration testing all components or modules are integrated simultaneously, after which everything is tested as a whole.
    * Bottom-up approach:
    The Integration testing starts from the lowest module and gradually progresses towards the upper modules of the application. This integration continues till all the modules are integrated and the entire application is tested as a single unit. Sometimes a dummy module(STUB) is used to test if any one module is not ready for integration.
    * Top-down approach
    This technique starts from the topmost module and gradually progress towards the lower modules. Only the top module is unit tested in isolation. After this, the lower modules are integrated one by one. The process is repeated until all the modules are integrated and tested.

  43. Big bang approach – All the modules of the system are simply put together and tested – all the modules of Gmail login application ex: login page,compose,delete etc., intgrated and tested
    Bottom-up approach – Each module at lower levels is tested with higher modules until all modules are tested – ex: bank application like payment,transfers and then login
    Top-down approach-First high-level modules are tested and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to ensure the system is working as intended.
    ex:login module is tested first and so on in order

  44. Integration Testing
    Big Bang Approach:
    In this small module are tested first and then integrated to test the interface between them.
    In this approach individual modules are not integrated until and unless the modules are ready.
    Example:
    In a banking application a customer needs to transfer money to a third party account. His current balance is $1000 and he is transferring $300 to another account.
    The Modules are
    1. Login
    2. Current Balance
    3. Deposit
    4. Withdraw
    5. Transfer
    Each module is developed by different developers
    • In the big bang approach wait for all modules to be developed
    • Disadvantage is that increases the project execution time and the testers should sit idle until all the modules are created.
    • Difficult to trace the root cause of the bugs.

    Top Down Approach:
    In this the Current Balance module is ready, Transfer module is not developed so we need to create Stub, which will accept and give back the data to the current balance module. Not a complete implementation of the Transfer module, it just simulates the data transfer between the modules to facilitate testing.

    Bottom Up Approach:

    In this approach Transfer module is developed and Current Balance module is not developed and we need to create a Driver to simulate to transfer between the modules.

  45. INTEGRATION TESTING

    ——————-

    1) BIGBANG APPROACH

    2) TOP-DOWN APPROACH

    3) BOTTOM-UP APPROACH

    EXAMPLE: http://WWW.IKEA.COM

    BIGBANG APPROACH :

    ——————–

    small functionalities( modules) checked first then all those small modules will be integrated with each other for better interface functionalities.

    ex:

    1) Search the products (low-level module)

    1) select products ( items) from the products list (low-level module)

    interface the selected product with the following high-level module for better workflow

    2) put them into “shopping cart”

    3) checked out

    4) payment

    All these modules checked individually and check finally combined all modules as a whole to check the interface with each other modules in order to complete the task

    * all low-level modules will not be integrated with high-level modules until all low-level modules are ready to integrate.

    topdown Approach

    —————-

    High-level modules are tested first then low-level modules tested then integrate all the low-level modules to test as a whole.

    basic functionality testing at the end of the cycle. because high-level modules tested first like online payment and shopping cart functionality(high-level module) check first. then selecting the product(low-level module) check later

    Bottom-up Approach

    ———————

    low-level modules are tested first high-level modules are tested later.

    search the product first (low-level module).

    select the product (low-level module).

    shopping cart and payment module (high-level module).

  46. Write the examples of the scenarios/ software for each of above different types of testing.
    Big bang approach:
    In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them.
    Top down approach:
    This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low level modules tested. Then the low level modules are joined together to test the whole system sometimes a dummy module is used to test if any one module is not ready for integration.
    Bottom up approach:
    This testing is reciprocate of the top down approach. Low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested.

  47. Component Integration testing is a form of Integrate/combine all modules / components (programs or units) of an application which are unit tested and test the behavior as a combined unit.
    • Big bang approach: In this small components or modules are tested first then they are combined together to test the interface between them. It is a good approach for small systems. It is easy to detect which module is causing an issue after integrated all individual modules.
    • Top down approach: This testing is done from top to bottom. High level modules are tested and then low-level modules tested and then low-level modules are joined together to test the whole system. sometimes a dummy module (Stubs) is used to test if any one module is not ready for integration.
    Examples: online shopping. It has different units/modules like login, product catalogue, shopping cart, billing, payment , shipping and package tracking. Each module assigned to developer and they do coding in their local system individually and tested. Once individual modules are ready, they integrate all modules together and test the behavior of the application.
    • Bottom up approach: Low level modules are tested first and then high-level modules are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together till all the modules are integrated and the entire application is tested as a single unit to study the behavior other modules.

  48. Integration testing: different modules are combined together and tested. idea behind of integration testing is to test the interface between modules.
    Big bang Approach: in big bang approach all modules are tested individually and combined together to test the interface.
    for example: wells Fargo login page ,account button,bills button are tested individually and put together.
    Top Down approach :In this approach testing is performed from high level modules to low level modules.for example
    in banking site like wells Fargo login page ,account summary,fund transfer, etc are tested first then other functionalities are tested like.help,search, financial planning, add choices.
    Bottom up Approach: its a vice versa of top down approach.modules are tested from low to high .

  49. Integration testing:
    For example, Amazon.com web application has to be developed by developers and that individual written programs are unit tested.
    Combining all the programs/units together of a application that make a whole system.
    This type of testing increases the reliability of the software and performance among the modules which are integrated.
    For example we have to test the working of a amazon application software in connection with
    the today’s deals,your amazon.com,registry,account,cart…etc that is unit testing
    but when you want to combine with alexa, prime video, Kindle E-readers & Books,..all together their behaviour is tested.
    There are 3 types of testing approach in this. They are:

    Big bang approach:
    In this the small modules like help,registry,..etc are tested for then
    they are combined together to test the interface between them.

    Top down approach:
    This testing is done from top to bottom.
    Here high level modules like account login,cart,..etc are tested first and then low level modules like help,giftcards,registry…etc are tested.
    Then the low level modules are joined together to test the whole system
    sometimes a dummy module is used to test if one module is not ready for integration.

    Bottom up approach:
    Here low level modules are tested first and then high level modules are tested.
    Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behaviourother modules.
    The Integration testing is performed by the developers to test the integration between the programs of the software using the development tools.
    The defects like inconsistent data flow, interface mismatch, inconsistent control flow, failures in communication can be identified using the integration testing.

  50. Pingback: Homepage
  51. The main function or goal of integration testing is to test the interfaces between the units/modules.
    There are fundamentally 2 approaches for doing test integration: 1) Bottom-up approach 2) Top-down approach.

    Bottom-up approach:- this testing starts from lowest or the innermost units of the application, and gradually moves up. this integration continues till all the modules are integrated and the entire application is tested as a single unit.
    The advantage of this approach is that, if a major fault exists at the lowest unit of the program, it is easier to detect it, and corrective measures can be taken.
    the disadvantage is that the main program actually does not exist until the last module is integrated and tested. As a result, the higher level design flaws will be detected only at the end.
    Top-down Integration:- In Top to down approach , testing takes place from top to down following the control flow of the software system. Take help of stubs for testing.
    Advantage:- Critical modules are tested on priority, major design flaws could be found and fixed first.
    Disadvantage:- Need many stubs. Modules at a lower level are tested inadequately.

  52. Integration testing: we will integrate the unit tested module one by one & test the behavior as a whole combined unit.
    Big bang approach: Here all the modules are integrated simultaneously and then everything is tested as whole Eg: In health insurance application all the tested modules like register account, login account, purchase plan, submit claims, manage life events are integrated and tested as whole.
    Top down approach: In this high level modules are tested first and then low level modules and integrating the low level modules to high level to test the behavior of the system as intended.Eg: Here high level modules like purchase plan, submit claim, manage life events are tested first and then integrated with low level modules like register account, login
    Bottom up approach: In this low level modules are tested first and then high level modules and integrating the high level modules to low level to test the behavior of the system. Eg: Here low level modules like register account, login
    are tested first and then integrated with high level modules like purchase plan, submit claim, manage life events.

  53. Big Bang Approach – Here, all components or modules are integrated together at once and then tested. Let’s take an example of net banking. So, a net banking application has many modules like: login, profile, settings, alerts, account summary, bill payments, transfer, special offers, deals,etc. In big bang approach, all of these modules are integrated simultaneously and tested as a whole.

    Top Down Approach – The testing is done from top to bottom. Here, the high-level modules are tested first before testing the low-level modules. Finally, the low-level modules are joined together to test the whole system. Sometimes, a dummy module (stub) is used to test, if any module is not ready for integration. Example, here high-level modules like account summary, bill payments, transfers are tested first before testing low level modules like: login, profile, settings.

    Bottom Up Approach – The testing is done from bottom to up. At first, low level modules are tested and after that high level modules are tested. Then they both are integrated and tested together to study the behavior other modules. Even here dummy variables or the modules(drivers) are used to test if any module is not ready for the integration.

  54. Integration Testing:
    Unit tested individual components/modules are tested together to check the proper behavior altogether.

    Bing Bang Testing:
    All the components are developed , unit tested and integrated to check. This type of testing cannot localize defect.

    Top Down Approach:
    High level components are combined and tested first.And then the low level components are joined together to test.

    Bottom Up Approach:
    Low level components are combines and tested first.Later the high level components are joined together to test.

  55. Integration testing is a type of white box testing,it is performed by the developers to test the integration between the programs of the software using the development tools.integration testing is a form of putting all the programs or units of a application which are unit tested and all other components make for the whole system.
    this type of testing is reliability and performance among the modules which are integrated.
    Bigbang approach:small components or modules tested first then combined together to test the interface between them.
    eg.first will test bluetooth,speakers,headphones then will combine togethr and test the audio.
    Top down approach:itis done from top to bottom,first high level modules are tested and then low level modules are tested.
    eg.will check the audio,bluetooth,speakers
    Bottom up approach:this testing is reciprocate of topdown approach.low level modules are tested first then high level modules are tested.
    eg. first will test headphones,speakers,then bluetooth

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