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FUNCTIONAL TESTING and NON FUNCTIONAL TESTING

LIST OF SOFTWARE TESTING TYPES

To read the first part of this article functional testing and non functional testing, click here

There are different types of Non Functional Testing listed below:

  • Performance testing:

    In the performance testing, the testing is done on the performance of the software under different aspects like checking the load capacity of the software like what is the page load if many users logged in simultaneously. Then it is tested for the amount of stress it can handle for certain time. Finally it is tested for its behaviour after it undergoes a stress or it handles too many loads for specific time.

 

  • Security testing:

    Security testing involves testing security features of the software like data protection and unauthorised access to it then data recovery fault management etc. Example: sms / email alerts on change in the balance of bank account, email alert when the gmail is accessed using different browsers.

 

  • Compatibility Testing:

    Compatibility testing process involves testing efficiency and reliability of the software for different operating systems and system environment.

Non functional characteristics of software:

The different non functional characteristics of the software that constitute the quality of the software are:

  • Maintainability:

    The software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software.

  • Reliability:

    The software should provide the stable outcome without any ambiguity.

  • Efficiency:

    The efficiency of the software is associated with the speed of the software. The software should have a low response time ie. it should be quick in responding to the user requests.

  • User friendly:

    The software is mostly used by a layman and hence should be user friendly with important functionalities high lighted. The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.

  • Portability:

    The end users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration. People browse and use the software on various devices like computers, smart phones, tablets with variety of operating systems, browsers, processors, memory, user settings etc. The portable software is usable on all the different devices used by users.

Check your understanding: 

  1. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
  2. Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
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64 thoughts on “FUNCTIONAL TESTING and NON FUNCTIONAL TESTING”

  1. Non Functional characteristics of software :-
    a.) Maintainability ; The software should not pose any technical issues, while the users use the software.
    b.) Reliability ; It should provide the stable outcome without any ambiguity.
    c.) Efficiency ; It is related with the speed of the software. It should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    d.) User friendly ; It should be user friendly with important functionalities highlighted. It should be easy and simple for a common user.
    e.) Portability ; End users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration. It should be usable on different devices which is used by users.

  2. 1. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.

    Functional Testing is the type of testing done against the business requirements of application. It is a black box type of testing.
    It involves the complete integration system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements. Based on the functional specification document this type of testing is to be carried out. In actual testing, testers need to verify a specific action or function of the code.

    Non-Functional Testing is the type of testing done against the non-functional requirements. Most of the criteria are not considered in functional testing so it is used to check the readiness of a system. Non-functional requirements tend to be those that reflect the quality of the product, particularly in the context of the suitability perspective of its users. It can be started after the completion of Functional Testing.

    2. Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software.

    • Maintainability
    Installation of a new version shall leave all database contents and all personal settings unchanged.
    • Reliability
    The system defect rate shall be less than 1 failure per 1000 hours of operation.
    • Efficiency
    Less than 20 seconds shall be needed to restart the system aftera failure 95% of the time.
    • User friendly
    Four out of five users shall be able to book a guest within 5 minutes after a 2-hour introduction to the system.
    • Portability
    The meantime needed to replace the current Relational Database System with another Relational Database System shall not exceed 2 hours. No data loss should ensue.

  3. Functional testing involves testing all the functions of the software in the requirement.
    Non functional testing involves non functional activities include performance, security and compatability
    Non functional testing characteristics are
    1. Maintainability – should not pose any technical issue
    2. Reliability – stable outcome
    3. Efficiency – speed of the software
    4. User friendly – easy to handle by the common user
    5. Portability – software should be used on different devices on different operating systems, browsers etc

  4. Functional testing is the testing of the features of the software, eg, for a banking application, the functional features to test would be login, atm locator, account balance, etc.
    Nonfunctional testing is the testing of the performance of the software. Eg, performance, security, compatibility, etc.

  5. The non functional characteristics of the software :
    Maintainability : Facebook url should work when login .
    Reliability : If we click Facebook it should open Facebook page.
    Efficiency: When click Facebook ,It should open home page fastly.
    Users friendly : Users should see all the posts on the timeline. users should easily tag a friend and post it.
    Portability : Users can open Facebook on mobile, tablets ,laptop etc

  6. 1 Ans.: The difference between & Non functional testing are:
    • The functional testing is a process of testing all the functions of a software application BUT non functional testing works for non functional activities of an application.
    • Eg of functional testing are Unit testing, smoke testing, system testing WHEREAS eg of non functional testing are performance testing, compatibility testing.
    2 Ans.: The example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software:
    • Maintainability: The software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software.
    • Reliability: The software should provide the stable outcome without any ambiguity.
    • Efficiency: The efficiency of the software is associated with the speed of the software. The software should have a low response time ie. it should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    • User friendly: The software is mostly used by a layman and hence should be user friendly with important functionalities high lighted. The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.
    • Portability: The end users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration. People browse and use the software on various devices like computers, smart phones, tablets with variety of operating systems, browsers, processors, memory, user settings etc. The portable software is usable on all the different devices used by users.

  7. Functional testing is a type of black box testing. It is used to detect the errors in the application and provides better access to defects. Functional testing tests the behavior of the software .While None functional testing includes nonfunctional aspect of the software ,includes non-requirement of the customers.

  8. Non-Functional characteristics:
    Maintainability- page not found
    Reliability- should provide same result every time you click not different result
    Efficiency-Site should open in minimum time
    User Friendly- Simple to access
    Portability: Should be able to open on different device with different configuration, like computer/ tablet with safari/chrome

  9. Non Functional characteristics of software are:
    -Maintainability :The software should not pose any technical issues.
    -Reliability : It should provide the stable outcome without any ambiguity.
    – Efficiency: it is related with the speed of the software.
    – User friendly : It should be user friendly with important functionalities highlighted
    -Portability : End users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration.

  10. 1.Functional testing is to test each functionality in depth and in details with different steps and data given by the requirements from the client. On the other hand, Non-functional testing is focused on non-function aspects like performance, such as load test, volume test, user test and stress test.
    2. Gmail example
    Maintainability: Gmail url should be open and accessed all the time after log in.
    Reliability: When you click Gmail, Inbox should display all email.
    efficiency: Inbox should be displayed in a short time when user clicks the gmail.
    user-friendly: It should be easy and simple to use the Gmail account.
    portablitliy:Computer/Smart Phone, Ipad etc, all devices should access to Gmail account.

  11. Functional testing is used to test each functions of the software.
    non functional testing ised to test non functional aspects like portability etc.
    functional testing based on user requirements.
    1. Maintainability – should not pose any technical issue
    2. Reliability – stable outcome
    3. Efficiency – speed of the software
    4. User friendly – easy to handle by the common user
    5. Portability – software should be used on different devices on different operating systems, browsers etc

  12. 1.
    Ans: Functional testing is a process of identifying the functions of software in the requirement and certain input data based on functions of the particular software. It works also like a black box testing. Functional testing does not test a module or method of the programe. it tests the part of the function of the software.
    Non functional testing is a requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors . Non functional requirements cover all the remaining requirements . Such as , parformance, volume test, user test, stress etc.

    2. Ans :
    Maintainability: Software does not pose any technical issues while in use.

    Reliability: Users have to trust the system, even after using it for a long time. Create a requirement that data created in the system will be retained for a number of years without the data being changed by the system.
    User friendly: The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user. exm, vehicle navigation system.
    Portability: Portability is the ease with which a software system can be transferred from its current software environment to another environment. People browse and use the software on various devices like computers, smart phones, tablets with variety of operating systems, browsers, processors, memory, user settings etc.
    Efficiency: It maintains the speed and response time.

  13. Differences between functional testing and non-functional testing are Functional testing is a kind of black box testing which will test the functional requirements of software and will not test the internal details like program code and non functional testing is used to test non functional aspects of software like performance testing , security testing and compatibility testing

    Example for each of non functional characteristics of software :
    Maintainability – WellsFargo company website should open with out any issues with URL when user tries to connect to WellsFargo .
    Reliability — It should open correctly without any issues
    Efficiency — It should open fastly and respond fastly when user clicks or uses the website
    User Friendly — WellsFargo website should be userfriendly and give messages accordingly when user tries to do correct or wrong things
    Portability – URL should be opened and able to access to the account when he tries to login on any devices like computer/ipad/iphone , laptop without any issues

  14. Functional testing: Functional testing is used to check whether all the functionalities of the application are working proper as per the requirement and nothing is left out or missed.
    Non-Functional testing: This type of testing is to check on the non functional aspects like whether the application is stable, secured, it can withstand the load and volume of data to handle without crashing or slowing down the application.
    Types of non functional testing are
    1. Performance testing: Testing how much users a application can handle at a given time, how much data the system can handle without slowing down the system etc.
    2. Security: Checking whether the database is safe and no one can access to their encrypted code without permission.
    3. Compatibility: Checking whether the application can work on different types of browser and different environment that has different OS and memory.

  15. The Difference between Functional and Non Functional testing:
    In Functionality testing, each functionality of the system is being tested that means every functionality of the system is tested by proving input, verifying the output and comparing the actual results with expected results. It describes what the product does and performed before non functional testing whereas Non Functional testing is the type of testing to check non functional activities like performance, reliability, Usability etc. Unlike functional testing, It describes how the product works and performed after functional testing.

    Here are some example for each of non functional characteristics of software :
    Maintainability –The software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software.
    Reliability — It should open correctly without any issues
    Efficiency — It should open fastly and respond fastly when user clicks or uses the website
    User Friendly — The software is mostly used by a layman and hence should be user friendly with important functionalities high lighted. The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common man.
    Portability – URL should be opened and able to access to the account when he tries to login on any devices like computer/ipad/iphone , laptop without any issues

  16. Non functionality characteristics of software:
    1-RELIABILITY-stable outcome without ambiguity.
    2-MAINTAINABILITY-no technical issues while using the software by the uses.
    3-PORTABILITY-software must run on different devices with different configuration.
    4-USER FRIENDLY-must be easy to use by the end users.
    5-EFFICIENCY-should be quick in responding user request.

  17. The difference between functional and Non functional testing
    Functional testing is a process of testing all the functions of the software whereas Non functional testing works for non functional activities of the application. Functional testing checks the quality of the software whereas Non functional testing checks the performance of the software under different conditions, whether the software can handle the stress, whether it works efficiently when too many users are logged in etc.
    An example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software:
    Maintainability -> should not pose any technical issues
    Reliability ->should be stable.
    Efficiency -> should be quick in responding and maintain speed
    User friendly ->should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user
    Portability ->should be usable on all the different devices used by users

  18. 1.Difference between Functional testing and Non functional testing:
    Functional testing: Testing all the functions of the software application to ensure the quality of the software. Checks whether the user is comfortable with the all the functions of the software. Works on customer requirements.
    Non functional testing: Tests non functional aspects like performance of the software under different conditions, security features of the software, effeciency and reliability of the software. Works on non requirement aspects of the customer.
    2. Non functional characterstics of software:
    Maintainability: Software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software.
    eg: Online banking. Any technical issues during funds transfer or bill payments can cause problem to the customers.
    Reliability: Software should provide stable output. Softwrae should work without failure for a specific period of time in specified environment.
    eg: ATM software
    Effeciency: Software should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    eg: mobile apps, gaming applications etc
    User friendly: Software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.
    eg: gmail, Online shopping sites etc
    Portability: End users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration.
    eg: google, Facebook etc

  19. Functional testing:testing of the software which tests the complete functionality of an application
    Non functional testing: tests the performance, security features, data protection, authentication, compatibility factors
    examples of non functional testing: performance testing, volume testing, load testing, usability testing, stress testing

  20. Functional testing is where the user tests the functions of the system derived from the functional requirements.
    Non Functional testing is based on the reliability of the software and if it matches the client requirements.

    Maintainability- A Discover card link that never breaks.
    Reliability- A phone app that opens without issues.
    User Friendly-Should be easy to understand
    Efficiency- The Google page should load for at most 10 secs.
    Portability- An app that can be accessed on multiple devices. Ex. Facebook app on the laptop, PC,notebook,Phone,ipad etc.

  21. Non-functional is a software performance testing. The sole purpose of this testing is to make sure the software is performing at an optimum based upon the requirements of maintainability, reliability, efficiency, user friendliness and portability. The software should work while users are logged or using it, it should provide reliable outcome, it should be quick in response time when user/s request an info, it should be simple and easy to use by a regular(non-technical) person and it should work with different browsers, platforms like smartphones, laptop, tablet etc.

  22. Functional Testing : Process of testing all the functionalities of the software in detail with different data sets. Its a black box testing type.
    Non -functional Testing : Testing the non functional activities of an application like Performance and security and compatibility of the software.
    Non function characteristics of software are :
    1.) maintainability
    2.) Reliability:
    3.) Efficiency:
    4.)User friendly:
    5.) Portability:

  23. Reliability- software should always produce stable outcome.
    Efficiency- software should not slow down when many users using it.
    Maintainability- software should have no technical issues after reaches user.
    Usability- should be easily understood by user.
    Portability- able to work on different hardware/software settings.

  24. 1. Difference between functional and non-functional testing
    – Functional testing tests the functions of the software application and non-functional testing works for non-functional activities of an application.
    – Functional testing involves identifying the functions of software in the requirement and creation of certain input data based on functional requirement of a particular software whereas non-functional testing is working on the non requirement aspects of the customer.
    – Functional testing is a type of black box testing and non-functional is performance based testing.
    2. Examples of the non-functional characteristics of the software
    – Maintainability: Page exception error while using a website
    – Reliability: Amazon shopping site not working fine on Prime day when there are sales
    – Efficiency: Google being able to respond with the search results in less time
    – User friendly: w3schools website very user friendly
    – Portability: Gotomeeting application being able to use in laptop, desktop, tablets, mobile phones, etc

  25. Difference between functional and non-functional testing:
    Functional testing is mainly to test all functions of the software application which is required by the client while Non-functional testing is to check all non-functional aspect like speed, performance, usability, reliability etc.
    Maintainability: If we want to open Gmail or Facebook or any other web page with correct URL in browser it should open without any technical issue.
    Reliability: If we try to open any web page it should be opening without any glitch or any other error.
    Efficiency: Gmail login page appears within 10 seconds
    User-friendly: Gaming application is user-friendly and anybody can easily use it.
    Portability: Gmail can be accessed on any device or in any environment. We can use Gmail on iPad, laptop, PC, IE, Chrome, Firefox etc.

  26. Functional testing:it is a process of testing all the functions of the software application.it checks the quality of the software.it does not test a module or method of a program.it tests the part of functions of whole system.testing each functionality detail and in depth with different steps and data.
    Non Functional testing:Non functional testing tests on non functional aspects of application software like performance of the software under different conditions like Reliability,usability,efficiency,maintainability etc.,there are different types of Non functional testing like 1.performance testing-checking load capacity of the software and how much stress it can handle etc., 2.Security Testing-like email alter for bank transactions,email login in different browsers alert,amount from the bank drawn message alert etc., compatibility Testing-testing the efficiency of the software for different operating systems.
    Non functional characteristics of software are reliability: means stable outcome,usability means should be user friendly, Efficiency means speed of the software even when number of users using,Maintainability means even when load is higher there should be no technical issues,Portability means should be usable on different systems like Win,ios,ipad etc.,

  27. Functional testing is the testing of the software to makes sure the software works for the end user with no defect.
    Non functional works for non functional activity of an application.
    Maintainability : when you use a websites there must not be any technical issue.
    Reliability : It should be stable when using the software.
    efficiency : software should respond quickly when there is a large number of user.
    user friendly : It should be access to every common person.
    portability : It can be use on the different devices.

  28. Difference between functional and non-functional testing:
    Functional testing is mainly to test all functions of the software application which is required by the client while Non-functional testing is to check all non-functional aspect like speed, performance, usability, reliability etc.Examples of the non functional characteristics of the software are:
    Maintainability: it shouldn’t have any issues during usage.
    Reliability: the software should perform as expected.
    User friendly: all sorts of users should access it.
    Efficiency: maintenance response time and the speed.
    Portability: Ability to be used on different operating systems and on different devices.

  29. Functional testing tests all functions of the software application as per the requirements. Non-functional testing tests how the application will perform. Non-functional tests Manintability, Reliability, User Friendly, Efficiency, and Portability,

  30. The difference between functional and Non functional testing
    Functional testing is a process of testing all the functions of the software whereas Non functional testing works for non functional activities of the application. Functional testing checks the quality of the software whereas Non functional testing checks the performance of the software under different conditions, whether the software can handle the stress, whether it works efficiently when too many users are logged in etc.
    An example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software:
    Maintainability -> should not pose any technical issues
    Reliability ->should be stable.
    Efficiency -> should be quick in responding and maintain speed
    User friendly ->should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user
    Portability ->should be usable on all the different devices used by users

  31. Functional testing is to test each functionality of software in detail whereas non-functional testing is to test non-functional aspects of the software such as reliability, performance speed.

    The non-functional characteristics of a software are :
    Maintainability: the software should not pose any technical issues
    Efficiency: Software should be quick to respond to user requests
    Reliability: software should provide stable outcome
    User Friendly: easy for users to access
    Portability:should be able to work on different devices

  32. Functional Testing: it is the process of testing all the functionality of the software based on the client requirements. It is type of black box testing where no program is considered in testing. It basically test the quality of the software in terms of functionality in depth.
    Non-Functional Testing: It is the process of testing all non functional aspects of the software. it includes the performance, speed, compatibility etc.
    The characteristics of non functional testing are:
    Maintainability: No usage issue after releasing in market.
    Efficiency: Response time should be less, like if we want to login, it should be quick.
    Portability: Software should be flexible to use any device. Like gmail can be easily open either on laptop, ipad, Mobile ph.
    User friendly: Easy to access for users. Like amazon.com, anyone can easily search the product.
    Reliability: Software should provide stable output. eg: shopping sites doesn’t work properly during sale time.

  33. Difference Between Functional & Non Functional Testing as below :
    Functional testing: black box testing of the software which tests the complete functionality of an application without testing the code.
    Non functional testing: tests the performance, security features, data protection, authentication, compatibility factors.

    Examples of non functional characteristics:
    1. Reliability: refers to high availability e.g. 24/7 banking application, search engines etc
    2. Maintability: adding a new tab in an existing application without causing application to malfunction or recover with ease on bugs/ errors.
    3. Portability : web applications that can be portable to any platform: Operating systems or browsers.
    4. User friendly: Any application that is easy to run. Gives proper messages, handles error messages appropriately.
    5. Effeciency: Software should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    eg: mobile apps, gaming applications etc

  34. Examples of non functional characteristics:
    1. Reliability: refers to high availability e.g. 24/7 banking application, search engines etc
    2. Maintainability: adding a new tab in an existing application without causing application to malfunction or recover with ease on bugs/ errors.
    3. Portability : web applications that can be portable to any platform: Operating systems or browsers.
    4. User friendly: Any application that is easy to run. Gives proper messages, handles error messages appropriately.
    5. Efficiency: Software should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    eg: mobile apps, gaming applications etc

  35. What is the difference between functional and non functional testing?
    Functional testing basically test how the system should work based on the client requirement (functionality of the software), whereas the non functional texting test the behavior of the software in various categories such as performance, security, and compatibility.

    Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    * Maintainability: It relates to the availability and flexibility of the software. Meaning user can have full access even when codes are being modified by Developers.
    * Reliability: Is regard to the software ability to function handling different environment for a giving period of time.
    * User friendly: It means easy to use and required no special training to lean how it works. like phone apps for example
    * Portability: It refers to the usability of the software in different environments, meaning able to move the software from one e,v. to another.
    * Efficiency: Is when a giving software is performing well and consuming less resources, ei. the capacity to handle a lot of load in less time.

  36. 1. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
    Functional Testing-
    Tests all the functions of the software,Checks the quality of the software
    Functional testing involves identifying the functions of the software in the requirement and creation of certain input data based on the functional requirements
    Non functional Testing-
    Non functional testing tests on non functional aspects of the application software like the performance of the software under different conditions, whether the software can handle stress, whether it works efficiently when too many users are logged in etc
    2.Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    • Maintainability: The software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software.
    Eg: In a banking software all the search results should updated and accurate
    • Reliability: The software should provide the stable outcome without any ambiguity.
    Eg: the banking software always should provide the stable outcome
    • Efficiency: The efficiency of the software is associated with the speed of the software. The software should have a low response time ie. it should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    Eg: The fund transfer through internet banking, the debit account should be debited instantaneously
    • User friendly: The software is mostly used by a layman and hence should be user friendly with important functionalities highlighted. The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.
    Eg: A banking website should be user-friendly
    • Portability: The end users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration.
    Eg: Online banking should be accessible with multiple devices having different configuration

  37. Functional testing: is to test the functionalities of the requirements
    Example: Login to your bank website and being able to sign in

    Non functional testing is to test non requirement activities of the software
    Example: software performance when used by users

  38. Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    – Maintainability: To what degree a software or application is understood, repaired or enhanced. Examples would be poor code quality, poorly documented systems.

    – Efficiency: To what extend the software system can handle capacity, quantity, and response time. Example would be efficiency of the software when too many users login at the same time.

    – User Friendly: The ease of use for the users to learn, operate and prepare input/outputs through interaction with the system.
    Example: How intuitive is the software system for users to purchase something online

    – Portability: Flexibility of the software to transfer from it’s current hardware/software environment to another one.
    Example: upgrading the hardware or software version

  39. functional testing: It is a type of black box testing. Functional testing involves identifying the functions of software in the requirement and creation of certain input data based on functional requirement of a particular software. Functional testing does not test a module or method of a program. It tests the part of functions of the whole system. In functional testing System Program code is not necessary. It completely works on the behavior of the program.
    Different kinds of functional testing are:
    System testing, UAT
    non-functional testing: the Non functional testing tests on non functional aspects of the application software like the performance of the software under different conditions, whether the software can handle stress, whether it works efficiently when too many users are logged in etc. working on the non requirement aspects of the customer is what is called as non functional testing.
    Different kinds of non- functional testing are:
    Performance testing, security testing, compatibility testing etc.

    Manitainablity: The software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software. EX: when using website for ex any shopping site, the user must be able to add items to the cart, once given the shipping details, user must be able to save all these without facing any technical issues.
    Reliability: The software should provide the stable outcome without any ambiguity.
    EX: Online banking should perform consistently when accessing account balances or utilizing features within the software such as transfers, bill pay, etc.
    Efficiency: The software should have a low response time ie. it should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    EX: When downloading or uploading the docs or photos to drop box or google photos (any clouds) it should be quick in responding. Rather taken enough of time in responding.
    user friendly: The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.
    EX: The website should be easy to use by layman, who doesn’t have technical knowledge. And find everything accessible.
    Portability: The end users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration. People browse and use the software on various devices like computers, smart phones, tablets with variety of operating systems, browsers, processors, memory, user settings etc. so the software should be portable to use on different devices and different browsers and h/w configs.
    EX: when using the website in mobile it gives less options compared to when accessing the same website over computer.

  40. Functional testing is where software functionalities are tested with out testing the code in compliance with clients requirement.
    Non functional testing is testing the software’s performance, security, compatibility,maintainability, reliability,efficiency, user friendly and portability.
    PERFORMANCE: eg: how many users that a shopping website can handle during sale time.
    SECURITY: eg: how efficiently does it blocks the unauthorized action by giving alert emails, error messages etc
    COMPATIBILITY: eg: how efficiently the software can be used under different software environments, like different OS
    MAINTAINABILITY: No technical issues while using the software.
    RELIABILITY: stable out come,eg: same results with same input like login details.
    USER FRIENDLY: Software should be very easy to navigate for any user. eg: locating stores on the navigation bar.
    PORTABILITY: How est the software can adopt on different devices. eg: phone, laptop, tablet etc.

  41. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
    Functional testing is a type of testing which verifies that each function of the software application operates in conformance with the requirement specification. This testing mainly involves black box testing, and it is not concerned about the source code of the application.
    Non-functional testing is a type of testing to check non-functional aspects (performance, usability, reliability, etc.) of a software application. It is explicitly designed to test the readiness of a system as per nonfunctional parameters which are never addressed by functional testing.
    2.Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software

    Performance requirements
    Requirements about resources required, response time, transaction rates, throughput, benchmark specifications or anything else having to do with performance.

    Operating constraints
    List any run-time constraints. This could include system resources, people, needed software, …

    Platform constraints
    Discuss the target platform. Be as specific or general as the user requires. If the user doesn’t care, there are still platform constraints.

    Accuracy and Precision
    Requirements about the accuracy and precision of the data.

    Modifiability
    Requirements about the effort required to make changes in the software. Often, the measurement is personnel effort (person- months).

    Portability
    The effort required to move the software to a different target platform. The measurement is most commonly person-months or % of modules that need changing.

    Reliability
    Requirements about how often the software fails. The measurement is often expressed in MTBF (mean time between failures). The definition of a failure must be clear. Also, don’t confuse reliability with availability which is quite a different kind of requirement. Be sure to specify the consequences of software failure, how to protect from failure, a strategy for error detection, and a strategy for correction.

    Security
    One or more requirements about protection of your system and its data. The measurement can be expressed in a variety of ways (effort, skill level, time, …) to break into the system. Do not discuss solutions (e.g. passwords) in a requirements document.

    Usability
    Requirements about how difficult it will be to learn and operate the system. The requirements are often expressed in learning time or similar metrics.

    Legal
    There may be legal issues involving privacy of information, intellectual property rights, export of restricted technologies, etc.

  42. 1. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
    Functional Testing:
    • The functional testing is a process of testing all the functions of a software application.
    • It checks the quality of the software.
    • Functional testing involves identifying the functions of software in the requirement and creation of certain input data based on functional requirement of a particular software.
    Non Functional Testing:
    • Non Functional testing works for non functional activities of an application.
    • Non functional testing tests on non functional aspects of the application software.
    • working on the non requirement aspects of the customer is what is called as non functional testing.

    2. Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    Maintainability: Software should not pose any technical issues while the users use the software.
    eg: shopping sites payments.
    Reliability: Software should provide stable output. Software should work without failure for a specific period of time in specified environment.
    eg: searching sites.
    Efficiency: Software should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    eg: Gaming applications
    User friendly: Software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.
    eg: google, shopping sites.
    Portability: End users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration.
    eg: gmail, Facebook

  43. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing
    Functional testing is a type of testing which verifies that each function of the software application operates in conformance with the requirement specification. where as Non functional testing is a type of testing to check non functional aspects like performance, usability, reliability, etc of a software application. Functional Testing helps to validate the behavior of the application . where as Non functional testing helps to validate the performance of the application.

    Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    Maintainability: No Technical problems should arise while the users use the software. Ex : Google site is used 24/7 all over the world. Maintainability very crucial
    Reliability: The software should perform as expected
    Efficiency: It should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    User friendly: The software is mostly used by layman and hence should be user friendly .
    Portability: The end users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration.

  44. The difference between functional testing and non functional testing are as follows:
    1.Functional Testing:In it the software is tested each functionality in detail and depth with different steps and different combination of the data.Eg:Yahoo application-email-login, enter username, password functionality are tested.
    2.Non Fuctional Testing:The non functional aspects of the application are tested.Eg:performance,security,relieabilty,usability etc are tested in the application of the software.
    Maintainability:When the user uses the software there is no technical issues.
    Reliability:There is a stable outcome without any errors
    Efficiency:The speed of the software.
    User friendly:It is easy to handle.
    Portability:This is usable on all the different device used by uses.

  45. The difference between functional testing and non functional testing are as follows:
    1.Functional Testing:In it the software is tested each functionality in detail and depth with different steps and different combination of the data.Eg:yahoo application-email-login are tested.
    2.Non Functional Testing: The non functional aspects of the application are tested. Eg: performance ,security , relieability ,usability etc are tested in the application of the software. Maintainability: When the user uses the software there is no technical issues. Reliability: There is no stable outcome without any errors. Efficiency: The speed of the software. User friendly: It is easy to handle. Portability: This is usable on all the different device used by uses.

  46. Functional testing involves testing all the functions of the software in the requirement.
    Non functional testing involves non functional activities include performance, security and compatability
    Non functional testing characteristics are
    1. Maintainability – should not pose any technical issue
    2. Reliability – stable outcome
    3. Efficiency – speed of the software
    4. User friendly – easy to handle by the common user
    5. Portability – software should be used on different devices on different operating systems, browsers etc

  47. The non functional characteristics are :
    maintainability: There should be technical issue on usage.
    Reliability: It should be easy to handle and provide the stable outcome.
    Efficiency: It should be quick in response.
    User friendly: It should be easily understandable by a layman.
    Portability: It should be used in different devices.

  48. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
    Functional testing
    Question asked here is -What is the system doing?
    The functional testing tests the behavior of the software.
    It is an in-depth and detailed testing of the functionalities of the software.
    Example : Yahoo homepage-
    ~can I login with valid credentials
    ~ click on yahoo news links – does it open in the same browser or different browser
    Non functional testing
    Question here asked – How is the software doing?
    It tests the non functional characteristics of the software. The non functional characteristics affecting the software are – relatability, efficiency, maintainability, usability, Portability.
    Example : when URL is typed and go button is clicked. How long does the page take to load?

    Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    Reliability- Is the user getting the correct outcome? Example: Take any math applications wherein we need to enter the equation and click on result. The system should show the right answer.
    Efficiency- Speed of the application . The application’s response time should be low.
    Example: Enter any search criteria in the search text box in google homepage. Does the user need to wait for a long time for the system to respond? Or does the system give a quick response.
    Maintainability- less frequent technical issues
    Example: Macy’s online shopping site or any shopping sites.
    Usability- Application should be user friendly. The end user or the customer is a non IT professional.
    Example: while entering data in textboxes for instance username and password the type and range of data to be entered shows when the cursor is on the text box.
    Portability- can the application move accross different environments and not just platforms.
    Example: Developing any application to be used on google android, Apple IOS , windows operating system etc

  49. Difference between functional and non-functional testing:

    Functional – test the functional aspects of the softfware this is also a part of black box testing where the tester is not aware of the internal mechanism but only tests the functionality of the software to meet the requirements.

    Non-functional – this tests the non-functional aspects of the software like performance and portability, compatibility.

    Some characteristics of non-functional testing are:

    Maintainability: is the ease with which the software can be modified to fix errors or improve performance or adapt to a changed environment.
    Reliability:is the probability of a failure-free software operation over a period of time in a specified environment.

    Efficiency:is associated with response time. another deffinitio says that efficiency is the optimal usage of resources like memory, cpu, time, files, connection etc.
    User friendly: software should be easy to run and easy to use for non-technical end users.

    Portability: software should be able to perform in various environments like different browsers, different OS, platforms like computer, smartphone and tablets.

  50. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing
    The functional testing is a type of black box testing used to test all the functionality or the behavior of the different functions of the software. example: making sure the different tabs on a website are opening properly and displaying the right content as per the requirements.
    Non functional testing tests the performance,security, compatibility,maintainability,reliability,efficiency, user friendliness and portability of the software.
    Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    Maintainability: user load should not cause any technical issues.
    Reliability:Making sure the websites have very good security, accurate data and so on.
    Efficiency: Making sure the system produces desired outcomes quickly. Software working at good speed with lot of users logged on simultaneously.
    User Friendly: The layout should be easily understood by customers using the software.
    Portability: compatible on different browsers, user should be able to switch between different
    devices like iPhone and android.

  51. The difference between functional and non-functional testing:
    Functional testing is a testing all the functions of a software application, or the quality of the software itself. It tests functions of the whole system, but doesn’t test a module or method of a program. This type of testing works on the behavior of the program, so system program code is not necessary.
    Non-functional testing tests the performance of the software under various conditions, such as; if it can handle stress, if it functions properly when too many users are logged in, etc.

    Maintainability: A social media site should be up and running with no issues
    Reliability: When a link is tab is clicked on in a social media page, it should open with a positive outcome
    Efficiency:A website shouldn’t slow me down by having issues.
    User friendly: As I navigate a website, it should not take more steps than needed to reach my destination
    Portability: I should be able to open my bank account on my phone, tablet, or computer on a variety of different browsers.

  52. Difference between functional and non-functional testing:
    Functional testing is process of testing all functions of software application. It tests the functional aspects like buttons and text box are working, links are clickable, only one radio button is select able etc.
    Non-functional testing is process is testing non functional activities of the software like testing if application can handle too many users at once, if application is secured, if it can be run on different devices etc.

    Example of each non-functional characteristics of the software:
    Performance testing: Ex: Bank account working well when large number of user perform balance add or transfer at same time.
    Security testing: Ex: sms/email alerts on change of bank balance
    Compatibility testing: Ex: Software working efficiently on different computers, browser, OS etc.

  53. Functional testing is a process of testing all the functions of a software application .It checks the quality of the software .Its a type of black box testing . It does not test the module or program .It test the part of function of the whole system.
    Non functional testing it works for the non functional activities of an application .The non functional testing tests the non functional aspects of the application software like the performance of the software.
    The different non functional characteristics of the software are:
    Maintainability, Reliability ,User friendly and Portability.

  54. 1. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
    Functional Testing, tests all the functions of a software application as per the client requirements. It is a type of black box testing, done on the whole of system.
    Non-Functional Testing, tests the non-functional part of the software application like its performance under different conditions, system security, portability etc.

    2. Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software:
    Non functional characteristics of software:
    The different non functional characteristics of the software that constitute the quality of the software are:
    • Maintainability:
    It should not give many errors while user work on the system and it should be easy to spot and fix the errors.
    • Reliability:
    The software should consistently good performance and should not crash frequently.
    • Efficiency:
    The software should have a low response time ie. it should be quick in responding to the user requests.
    • User friendly:
    The software should be simple to use and easy to handle by a common user.
    • Portability:
    The end users should be able to use the software on different devices with different configuration. The portable software is usable on all the different devices used by users.

  55. 1. Identify the difference between functional and non functional testing.
    Functional Testing – the functions of a software applications are tested for quality and also to ensure the behavior of the software is per the client requirements.
    Non-Functional Testing – the non-functions of the software application like the performance of the software and how well the application handles the software are tested here.

    2. Give an example for each of the non functional characteristics of the software
    Maintainability – Once the application goes live, issues come up in the live environment or the customer wants an enhancement, The maintenance team is available to test the scenarios.
    eg: Sometimes the websites go under maintenance to check for the issues raised by the customers or for some enhancements.
    Reliability-This type of testing is to verify if the application is reliable and if it can give the same output expected every time as desired.
    eg: when we give invalid login name it should reset the page with error message.
    Efficiency – this tests the speed of the application and should have a low response time
    eg: During a thanksgiving time, many users use the online retail website to get the deals and this testing tests if the application is able to sustain the environment and still have a low response time.
    User Friendly- the software should be simple and easy to use and user friendly with important functionalities highlighted.
    eg: eg: Amazon one-click button, Track your package – rather than going into the order details to find the tracking number and pasting it in the Fedex site.
    Portability- the software must be able to be used on different devices with different configuration.
    eg: Google should work in Windows environment and IOS environment.

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